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Home PRAKSA Konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat na oltarnoj pali sv. Nikole iz Strmen Doca kraj Trilja

Konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat na oltarnoj pali sv. Nikole iz Strmen Doca kraj Trilja

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Ivana BOJIĆ, Tomislav GRZUNOV, Lana KEKEZ (konzervacija-restauracija štafelajnih slika i polikromiranog drva, III. god.)




MENTOR: Larisa Aranza, doc. (voditeljica specijalističkog usmjerenja za konzervaciju i restauraciju štafelajnih slika i polikromiranog drva Odsjeka za konzervatorstvo-restauratorstvo Umjetničke akademije)

S A Ž E T A K
Tijekom akademske godine 2004/05. započet je restauratorski zahvat na oltarnoj pali svetog Nikole iz Župne crkve u Strmen Docu kraj Trilja. Slika je rađena tehnikom jajčane tempere na drvenom nositelju. Autor nije poznat. Slika je primjer provincijalne umjetnosti XVIII. stoljeća.
U sklopu kolegija Konzervacija-restauracija štafelajnih slika i polikromiranog drva, pod mentorskim vodstvom doc. Larise Aranza, rad na umjetnini započeli su Jelena Banđur, Ivana Bojić, Tomislav Grzunov, Lana Kekez, Iva Paduan i Ivana Petković. Zahvat su početkom akademske godine 2005/06. dovršili studenti Ivana Bojić, Tomislav Grzunov i Lana Kekez.

 

 

OPIS ZATEČENOG STANJA

Drvena oltarna pala s polukružnim završetkom sastavljena je od četiri drvene ploče koje su sa stražnje strane poprečno učvršćene parketažem od tri letvice. Nositelj se sastoji od dijelova načinjenih od razičitih vrsta drva, pa je zbog  nejednolikog rada ploča došlo do raspucavanja gornjeg lučnog dijela ukrasnog okvira.
Značajne razlike u odabiru nositelja dovode nas do zaključka da su u određenoj fazi dimenzije slike mijenjane te da je parketaž naknadno dodan. Ne zna se točno kada su se i zašto te promjene dogodile, ali jedan od mogućih razloga mogla bi biti promjena titulara (danas je to crkva sv. Nikole) i iskorištavanje starije slike za izradu nove s prikazom novog sveca zaštitnika. Kredni premaz na poleđini slike dodan je nakon promjena dimenzija jer je jednak na svim dijelovima nositelja i parketaža.

Nedostaje gornji lijevi dio (vrh) krajnje desne daske (koja je naknadno dodana pri izmjeni dimenzija slike);  taj nedostatak prekriva ukrasni okvir koji je fiksiran za sliku  kovanim metalnim čavlima sa stražnje strane. Parketaž je također učvršćen kovanim metalnim čavlima.
Na cijeloj  površini poleđine slike  vidljiva je prašina, paučina, razne kukuljice i čahure, nakupine pahuljastih žutih gljivica i tragovi crvotočine.
Na licu slike vidljiva su mehanička oštećenja od čavala kojima je pričvršćen parketaž. Oštećenja slikanog sloja su nastala na mjestima gdje su izraženi godovi, čvorovi i struktura drva. Na licu slike nalazimo i brojne rupice koju su nastale kao izlazni kanalići za odrasle jedinke crvotočine. Na mjestima oštećenja zatečenog slikanog sloja vidljiv je raniji oslik. Zatečeni slikani sloj je dobro sačuvan, iako slabog intenziteta ( izblijeđen na gornjem dijelu slike, a diskoloriran na donjem). Nanos boje je tanak, pastozan samo na nekim mjestima. Cijela površina slikanog sloja ima na sebi bijelu maglicu, što je možda uzrokovano prijašnjim pokušajima čišćenja slikanog sloja vodom. Na mjestima godova boja se odiže i otpada,  krta je i vrlo nestabilna. Preparacija je nanesena u tankom sloju.
Dimenzije ukrasnog okvira mijenjane su kada i dimenzije same slike, a pojedini segmenti razlikuju se u profilaciji. Nedostaje dio okvira na lijevoj strani luka slike. Okvir je  polikromiran, vjerojatno u izvornom osliku oblikujući izmjene zelenih, plavih, crvenih i žutih polja. Na oštećenjima bojanog sloja vidljivi su ostatci tankog sloja preparacije. Nisu zatečeni tragovi ranijeg oslika.
Na donjim dijelovima slike izražena je  diskoloracija plavog oslika ( prikaz morske površine) u zeleni, što bi mogla biti posljedica postojanja završnog premaza. Međutim, nismo sa sigurnošću ustanovili negovo postojanje. Te su promjene mogle su nastati i kemijskom reakcijom pigmenta s vezivom.



KONZERVATORSKO–RESTAURATORSKI ZAHVAT

Zbog intenzivnog osipanja bojanog sloja, bilo je potrebno napraviti podljepljivanje na gotovo cijeloj površini slike. Za to smo koristili 3-postotnu otopinu zečjeg tutkala koju smo nanosili na japanski papir, na površinu koju smo prethodno tretirali izopropilnim alkoholom radi smanjenja površinske napetosti. Zatim smo površinu uglačali preko Melinex folije špatulom zagrijanom na približno 60 °C. Pri podljepljivanju ukrasnog okvira uočeno je da slikani sloj ostaje na japanskom papiru. To se događalo jer je korištena boja bila topiva u izopropilnom alkoholu. Stoga smo podljepljivanje napravili koristeći samo tutkalnu otopinu.
Nakon mehaničkog čišćenja slike od prašine i paučine, kemijski je uklonjena površinska nečistoća otopinom triamonijeva citrata u vodi (2.5 %). Nakon čišćenja površina je neutralizirana Shellsolom T.  Na isti način očišćena je i polikromija na okviru.
Čišćenje poleđine izvršeno je mehaničkim uklanjanjem prašine, paučine, tragova raznih nametnika i ostataka žbuke (između dasaka parketaža i dasaka nositelja).
Korozija sa čavala uklonjena je mehanički, skalpelima, do sloja "zdravog" metala. Da bismo spriječili daljnju koroziju, čavle smo premazali s dva sloja otopine Paraloida B-72 u toluenu (20 %).
Lučni dio okvira koji je nedostajao rekonstruiran je u lipovom drvu prema izvornoj profilaciji. Novo drvo je premazano tutkalom kako bi ga se  izoliralo i pripremilo za nanošenje tutkalno-kredne preparacije. Rekonstruirani dio okvira  prvo smo PVA ljepilom fiksirali za izvorne dijelove okvira. Nakon sušenja spojeva,  cijeli smo dio mehanički fiksirali na sliku  sa stražnje strane koristeći dva vijka od nehrđajućeg čelika.
Manja površinska oštećenja drva nositelja rekonstruirana su epoksidnom smolom (Araldit). Preko epoksidne smole nanesena je kredna preparacija, te retuš i lak.
Prije rekonstruiranja preparacije površine su izolirane razrijeđenom otopinom zečjeg tutkala (9 %). Nakon toga nanesena je kredna preparacija od bolonjske krede u zečjem tutkalu (8 %). Kako bismo smanjili upojnost novonanesene preparacije izolirali smo je s otopinom šelaka u denaturiranom alkoholu (2 %).

Na sliku je nakon izolacije kredne preparacije kao međulak nanesena 30-postotna otopina Paraloida B72 u toluenu uz dodatak 20 % dietil-benzena kako bi otapalo sporije hlapilo i lak sporije sušio. Lak je nanošen kistom u jednom sloju.

Retuš je izveden akrilima izravno na međulak. I retuš i lak mogu se u potpunosti ukloniti toluenom (ili acetonom), bez oštećenja slikanog sloja.

Prije nanošenja završnog laka zone retuša lakirane su kistom sa 30-postotnom otopinom Paraloida B 72 u toluenu uz dodatak 20 % dietil-benzena. Ovo je napravljeno kako bi se smanjila upojnost retuša i kako bi završni lak bio ujednačen na cijeloj površini. U ovoj fazi problem se javio na nekoliko mjesta na kojima je naneseni lak otopio retuš. Problem je riješen na način da je nakon sušenja laka nanesen novi retuš koji je ponovo lakiran istim lakom. Problem se više nije ponavljao.

Kao završni lak sprejanjem pomoću kompresora  nanesena je 10 % otopina Paraloida B 72 u toluenu.


ANALIZA BOJANOG SLOJA

Već samim promatranjem slikanog sloja i nepravilnosti u drvenom nositelju došlo se do pretpostavke da je kao nositelj upotrijebljena starija slika kojoj su promijenjene dimenzije. Postojanje donjeg slikanog sloja bilo je vidljivo na mjestima gdje je nedostajao gornji slikani sloj. Pastoznije nanose donjeg slikanog sloja moguće je uočiti i u samoj teksturi površine slike. Zanimljiva je i činjenica da je autor slike s prikazom svetog Nikole na više mjesta pratio forme i linije prikaza originalnog slikanog sloja.
Analiza bojenog sloja napravljena je mikropresjecima slikanog sloja i radiografskim ispitivanjem. Mikropresjeci su potvrdili sumnje o postojanju još jednog bojanog sloja na tri drvene ploče, no njegovo postojanje nije uočeno na naknadno dodanoj četvrtoj lijevoj dasci oltarne pale.
Kako bi se potvrdile pretpostavke o postojanju još jednog slikanog sloja ispod postojećeg, slika je odnesena na radiografsko snimanje koje je dalo zanimljive rezultate.
Analizom dobivenih snimaka uočena su tri lika: u području desnog dijela lica sv. Nikole nalazi se lik Bogorodice koji se proteže otprilike do polovine prsiju sveca. Zanimljivo je primjetiti da se dio glave Bogorodice nalazi u području  ispod ukrasnog okvira, što govori da je pri promjeni izvornih dimenzija nositelja ili mijenjana zakrivljenost luka ili je pak izvorno pravokutni gornji dio prerađen u polukružni.
Desno od Bogorodice, a u donjoj polovini slike je sv. Roko (glava mu se nalazi uz lijevi lakat anđela koji nosi mitru sv. Nikole), a lijevo do njegovih nogu je prikazan pas.
Nasuprot sv. Roku nalazi se svetac za kojeg pretpostavljamo da je sv. Mihovil, ali rendgenske snimke nam nisu pomogle da tu sumnju potvrdimo. Međutim, u samom dnu druge daske nositelja s lijeva prikazana je glava vraga, a poznato je da se sv. Mihovil prikazuje u trenutku kada kopljem ili mačem napada vraga. Na površini slike moguće je uočiti teksturu na mjestu lica vraga i teksturu koja bi mogla odgovarati koplju (maču) sv. Mihovila. Također se usporedbom rendgenske snimke i stanja na slici može uočiti forma koja podsjeća na bosu nogu, a sv. Mihovil se najčešće i prikazuje bos.
S obzirom na prikazane likove i način prikazivanja moguće je da preslikana kompozicija prikazuje Bogorodicu sa svecima Rokom i Mihovilom.
Objavljeno: 26. travnja 2006.



















Lektorirano 25. studenog 2011. (M. G. Milić)
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Zatečeno stanje - lice slike
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Zatečeno stanje - poleđina
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Oštećenje slikanog sloja
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Površinske nečistoće na stražnjoj strani slike

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Nedostajući dio drvenog nositelja - pogled s poleđine

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Oštećenje slikanog sloja na kojem je vidljiv donji oslik

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Oštećenje slikanog sloja na kojem je vidljiv donji oslik

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Nedostajući dio ukrasnog okvira

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Podljepljivanje slikanog sloja

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Pokusno čišćenje slikanog sloja

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Rekonstrukcija ukrasnog okvira

 


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Rekonstruirani dio ukrasnog okvira
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Nanošenje preparacije pod bočnim svjetlom

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Retuširanje
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Detalj anđela prije retuša
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Isti detalj nakon retuša
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Detalj štapa sv. Nikole prije retuša
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Isti detalj nakon retuša
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Slika nakon konzervatorsko-restauratorskog zahvata
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Raspored likova na starijoj slici

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Sv. Roko - detalj glave

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Bogorodica

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Vrag

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Feb 22, 2017

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Smart Tips For Finding Tips

What the Expectations of SEO Services Should Be

SEO is the acronym for search engine optimization. Search engine optimization can be utilized by a service provider to increase the number of website visitors. High ranking placements in the search results page ensures that this number is increased. Accessibility of a site to a search engine is ensured by this service. Also improved is the probability of the page being ranked highly by the search engine.

One should look for a reputable company when choosing SEO agencies. The SEO Company that comes first by simply searching on the web is the best. For this reason, for it to be the first to appear on the result page it must have performed highly. The best need not to be ranked here it is important to note. A great retention of clients is an attribute of a good company. The clients are always satisfied with the services offered. These companies consistently do great work and are in high demand. Out of their great work they get referrals and this explains why they don’t have to appear on search engines. These companies are usually overwhelmed with clients all the time because clients refer others to them. They make plenty of money and they are basically busy and thus they don’t spend time optimizing their own website.

SEO companies that cannot offer information should not be chosen. An agency cannot be trusted if they cannot tell you how they plan on doing the specific job you give them. SEO is a very open field. Therefore to choose a SEO, one should set goals that are needed to be achieved by the services. There are good and bad goals. One should list at least three to five agencies to choose from after setting goals. Creating a list requires a source of the information. Being the source are; friends, personal and professional networks. Industry insiders and similar non-competitive companies should offer the required information.

One should choose SEO companies based on the trust that one has established with a company. One should choose that company if they hear a great referral and they trust the referral source. That it takes time is what one should keep in mind when going through the list of SEO agencies. Always the best is a monthly retainer. SEO changes because the field is full of competition and one rankings too change. Not all SEO services are created equal. One that clearly defines its scope and educates you is what should be found. A SEO is important and should be done because the point of the website is to improve business. In comparison a SEO service provider is better than doing the thing personally. One will rarely emerge as the top if they decide to do it on their own.

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Study: My Understanding of Sites

Reasons for Using WordPress. Perhaps you have always wanted to design a website but then you do not have the skills.Do not worry as WordPress has got your back.As a business owner, you always need to consult with your web developer whenever you need to change or add details on your website. WordPress is easy to use and access. With its various themes, you will be guided on how to go about it. Before WordPress came, everyone had to deal with the developer even long after they are done with the web design, even to change the smallest details, one couldn’t do it on their own, so every time your called developer you had to pay them. With WordPress created websites, they are accessible from any kind of screen or browser as long as you have proper internet connection. WordPress, enables you to easily add so many plug-ins on your website as long as they don’t conflict.These days most websites have a video or audio icon on them. This means that there is improved time management since you can have an entire weeks schedule and it will be updated to your website the date and time that you have indicated. The link adding happens on your control panel. Most people look for websites that once they are done reading through your website or watching videos, they can then say something about it, you also feel nice getting feedback from your viewers.
Study: My Understanding of Sites
This means that website created using WordPress are more secure than any other website, always inquire from your developer whether they have WordPress software, and if they don’t recommend it to them. With WordPress however, the software creates websites that are already optimized, either to Bing or Microsoft Network (MSN), so you do not have to worry that your website will not be seen by search engines.
The Essentials of Sites – Breaking Down the Basics
People create websites so that they can be able to market their products, services or even themselves.Allowing you to have eye catching headlines on your website or blog, WordPress has made it easy for people to become more curious with the headlines they get on your website. Unlike other website software where you have to pay a developer to help you crack it, WordPress is absolutely free and comes with unlimited validity.If you have any troubleshooting problems, there are a large number of people using WordPress who are ready to help. Better still, more people are embracing this technology with open arms.

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6 Facts About Activities Everyone Thinks Are True

On the Sudden Growth in the Popularity of eSports When you see a stadium full of enthusiastic fans, you can no longer assume that they are there to watch professional sports stars. You may also find professional gamers, donning their headsets and taking part in video game competitions known as eSports. In little more than two decades, eSports has grown from its roots in local arcade game competitions into a competitive event that is the equal of many types of organized sporting events in terms of interest and attendance. Just like traditional sports, this level of audience interest has brought in major sponsors and even network television coverage. There has been some amount debate as to whether or not eSports actually qualifies as a sporting event. Traditionalists claim that the virtual aspect of the competition makes it impossible to call eSports a real sport. Others would claim that eSports is actually just as skill-based as any other sport. Those who participate in eSports competition must have extremely fast reflexes and be able to command amazing hand-eye coordination. Gamers must also be extremely knowledgeable about the games they are playing. Does it really matter whether or not eSports actually qualifies as a real sport? Major league eSports competitions actually draw a number of online viewers that exceeds the viewership of many other major professional sports. Gaming channels on Youtube actually have more followers than any other type with the exception of music channels. When you have viewing audiences rivaling the most popular professional sports, you can bet that eSports will continue to grow in popularity in the future.
Getting Creative With Sports Advice
Many people who are unfamiliar with eSports may be wondering what an eSports competition looks like. In an eSports competition the gaming is facilitated by video gaming systems. The game itself is broadcast throughout the facility on large screen monitors that can be viewed by the entire audience. Generally, on the monitors, eSports is broadcast in split screen fashion, with the gaming field that the participant sees taking up the larger portion of the screen, with the participants inset at the bottom or top of the screen.
Practical and Helpful Tips: Sports
Many people have pretty stereotyped views of what gaming competitions may look like. Instead of propagating stereotypes of gamers wearing headsets, chugging energy drinks, it is better to tune in and watch some eSports competition to see why so many people are interested in this growing phenomenon. Already eSports competitions are extremely popular, and they are still growing in popularity. Those who are interested in learning more about eSports competition should start out by watching eSports events online. Online eSports TV channels, like DingIt TV, offer people a detailed view of this eSports competitions. To get started, all you have to do is search the Internet for more information about eSports.

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Finding Ways To Keep Up With Entertainment

How to Find Great eSports Streaming eSports are among the most exciting and popular spectator events around. In a world dominated by spectator sports, eSports gaming competitions are quickly drawing crowds that rival even the most popular sports. Matches among the leading eSports competitors are broadcast on TV and streamed live online all around the world. If you are interested in gaming and love to watch people play who are especially skilled, you have to check eSports broadcasts. eSports first rose in prominence in Korea and other Asian countries where it is considered to be one the most important spectator events. The largest fan bases in the sport can be found in Korea, as well as the largest audiences for major eSports events. While it is true that gaming competitions were popular during the 1990’s, technological constraints did not allow them to achieve the kind of popularity they have today. However, thanks to the sudden growth in global communications technologies beginning around the year 2000, gaming competitions became less local and more of a world wide phenomenon. Today you can view online gaming content in a wide variety of venues. In fact, your will find that gaming channels are among the most popular subscription channels on Youtube, number two behind music channels. However, the gaming content that you view on a gaming channel is a lot less competitive than the eSports content you will find on an eSports streaming service. The gaming channels you find on video services like Youtube are primarily for humor and entertainment as opposed to eSports streaming platforms that stream the most competitive eSports available on a daily basis.
The Essentials of Activities – The Basics
Because of the popularity of online eSports streaming platforms, like DingIt TV, audiences for eSports in North America and Asia are now beginning to rival those in Asia. Even in the United States and Europe, you will find audience attendance at eSports events that actually rivals the crowds attending professional sports events. Recently, a leading sports website reported that eSports actually attracted more viewers than any other sporting event but professional football.
Lessons Learned from Years with Sports
Recently, there has been some debate to whether or not eSports are actually real sports. Those who believe it is not actually a sport say that it depends too much on the video game to facilitate game play. However, those who support the idea of video game competitions as sports competitions recognize the great amount of skill and incredible hand-eye coordination gaming takes. The easiest way to find the best in eSports action is to search the Internet for gaming competitions being streamed online. Those who would like to learn more about eSports competitions should begin by searching the Internet for an online eSports streaming platform, like DingIt TV. To begin, the best thing you can do is search the Internet for eSports online streaming platforms.

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Feb 20, 2017

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Why not learn more about Money?

Ways of Experiencing a Fruitful Crowdfunding Event

Crowd funding has been in existence for some time now. But, it has become popular recently. You can access crowd funding from different websites and platforms. Entrepreneurs who are starting up business should take advantage of crowd funding to raise cash. The traditional methods of acquiring finances are very different from this option. On this note, you have to impress the audience in order to get funding. You are to make an appeal to the audience so as to get funds and support.

You need to come up with a strategic plan before kick starting the fundraising project. Once you get the required funding, make sure that your project kicks off. This means bringing together your designs, team and strategy.
There is a need of building up on an audience and fan base as you proceed with planning and creating strategies. You are after numbers and hence using social media would be the most convenient means of reaching your goal. You are also at the advantage of reaching out to people from all over the world.

You require to prepare people psychologically on when the project will be taking place. Come up with an exciting tactic that will leave the audience wanting to witness the crowd funding project.
What Has Changed Recently With Money?

You should always recall that the audience will be you crowd funding. Once they get on board and support your idea, they will be the first consumers too. While using this strategy, note that the products are created once the funding issue is done. It would therefore be wise to keep on communicating with your fans even after the fundraising. Most importantly, let the audience know when they will finally have access to the product.
Money – Getting Started & Next Steps

Begin by listing down the foundation of your speech. Creativity is of the essence on this matter. The main aspect you want to gain from the speech are being able to engage the audience and appeal to them as well. Once you manage to capture their attention through the header and the introduction sentences, you are good to go.

You are advised to stick to your story. Give a brief history what of what motivated you to build up on your idea. Let the audience b aware of the challenges you have been facing. You can opt to use humor though you have to be tactful about it.

You should think of a video once you have finished the written piece. There are those who prefer to watch as opposed to reading and hence a video would create a good impact. Note that the optimal length of the video should be around three minutes.

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Feb 20, 2017

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How I Achieved Maximum Success with Diving

Tips On How To Buy The Ideal Scuba Mask.

It will be important to consider several decisions when it comes to buying a scuba mask. Ensure that you will be able to familiarize yourself with the mask first before you get to buy it. In that case you will be able to know which one suits you best. With that here are some of the given factors which will need to be considered in the given case.

Either buying or renting the masks is one of the problems that the divers have to deal with in this case. In diving you will find that owning your equipment will be the ideal way to do it that will be as well as the mask. That way you will be able to get the one that fits you well and suits your style and preferences. In many cases you will find that when dealing with the rentals, they will not always come in the way you would want to have you like. The only time the rentals would come in handy is when you find that a person has forgotten to carry theirs and they need to go for diving.

The market will give you a variety of scuba masks as well as the swim masks. You will find that they are made differently and the two cannot be confused with each other. You will find that the scuba masks are made in such a way that they are able to sustain the pressure that comes with diving unlike the swim masks.

You will find that they will tend to have a very strong tempered glass for that purpose which is not the case with the swim mask. It will be important to consider a case where the air mask will be meant for the balancing of the pressure under the water. This are very important features that any diver should look for in a scuba mask which will not be the case found in a swim mask.

Consider how well the mask will be able to fit in this case. When you get the skirt wrapped around you then you will find that there are no gaps available in such a case. When you get an ill fitting mask you will find that the water will be able to flow inside very easily which can lead to choking and drowning in other cases. That is why you have to look for a store that they give the fitting measurements for their customers before the buy. When you look at the mask in this case you will find that the pool is a good start to ensure that it will be right to use in large water bodies.

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Feb 20, 2017

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Interesting Research on Resources – What No One Ever Told You

The Advantages Of A Hoseless Dive Computer

A hoseless dive PC is a remote and air facilitated compass which is planned for bouncing while considering an extension or lessening in pneumatic drive as an individual is diving. There are a few focal points that are joined by the utilization of a hoseless plunge PC, for example, the PC permits following of the decompression status as it anticipates decompression infection in jumpers this is on account of it tracks the nitrogen levels in the body of a jumper by controlling the measure of nitrogen admission and out take in the jumper as it is critical to likewise guarantee that the jumper gets great quality air as they are making a plunge the ocean.

It also allows an individual to spend more time under water this is because it has a maximum number of feet that the diver can be able to dive deep and it also limits the period of time the individual will be in the water as this often helps prevent decompression sickness in an individual.

Bounce PCs also help in giving accurate time and significance recordings when appeared differently in relation to the conventional strategy for figuring the significance and time that the jumper spends in water as it was much of the time off course, yet the usage of the dive PC progresses exact estimations and meanwhile it in like manner ensures that there are no more dive table bumbles this is in light of the fact that hop PCs actually plays out each one of the considers for the decompression status of the jumper and besides register the decompression time and the rooftop significance this is just in case an individual encounters a decompression.

The dive computer also has accent rate indicators which often indicate to the diver the rate at which they are supposed to ascend this is because divers are taught on how to ascend slowly so that they do not exceed their set maximum ascend rate this is because if they do so they may suffer from decompression sickness and it also gives the diver a warning in the event where they are ascending at a fast rate than they are supposed to.

Hoseless bounce PCs are in like manner known to consider a decrease in weight when an individual ascensions to shallow profundities and thusly an individual can have the ability to know the rate at which they ought to ascend on to the surface of the water and this is frequently seen as more exact when stood out from standard tables which are thought to be less correct.

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