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Home PRAKSA Konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat na ikoni s prikazom Bogorodice s Djetetom iz XVI. ili XVII. st.

Konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat na ikoni s prikazom Bogorodice s Djetetom iz XVI. ili XVII. st.

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Jurica MATIJEVIĆ, docent (voditelj specijalističkog usmjerenja konzervacija-restauracija štafelajnih slika i polikromiranog drva)
Ivka LIPANOVIĆ (dipl. konzervator-restaurator)
Sagita Mirjam SUNARA, viši asistent
Mr. sc. Katarina HRASTE, viši predavač




S A Ž E T A K

U Nacionalnom muzeju Slovenije i ove je godine priređena izložba strukovnih plakata iz područja konzervacije-restauracije. Izložba je trajala od 26. do 31. svibnja, a specijalističko usmjerenje za konzervaciju i restauraciju štafelajnih slika i polikromiranog drva Odsjeka za konzervaciju-restauraciju UMAS-a predstavilo se plakatom o konzervatorsko-restauratorskom zahvatu na ikoni s prikazom Bogorodice s Djetetom iz XVI. ili XVII. stoljeća, iz Muzeja grada Korčule. Zahvat na umjetnini bio je predmet diplomskog rada Ivke Lipanović, a obavljen je pod mentorskim vodstvom docenta Jurice Matijevića. Tekst plakata, kojega ovdje donosimo kao članak, priredila je Sagita Mirjam Sunara prema dokumentaciji Ivke Lipanović. Na engleski jezik prevela ga je mr. sc. Katarina Hraste.
Korčulanska ikona djelo je nepoznatog majstora kretsko-venecijanske škole,  a rađena je u tehnici tempere. Zatečena je u izrazito lošem stanju: drvo je bilo izjedeno crvotočinom, a na velikom dijelu površine nedostajao je oslik. U cijelosti je bila preslikana i prekrivena debelim slojem nečistoće. Prilikom izvođenja zahvata, restauratori su se susreli s problemom krivljenja drvenog nositelja i šatorastog odizanja slikanog sloja.

 

Povijesnoumjetnička bilješka

U Gradskom muzeju Korčule čuva se ikona na drvu s prikazom Bogorodice s Djetetom, rad nepoznatog majstora kretsko-venecijanske škole iz XVI. ili XVII. stoljeća (Sl. 1). Slika je rađena u tehnici tempere. Pravokutnog je oblika, dimenzija 38.2 x 28.2 x 2 cm (visina x širina x debljina). Prikazuje tip Bogorodice Madre della Consolazione (Bogorodica od Utjehe).
Pozadina likova je zlatna. Bogorodica je prikazana u tričetvrt profilu, glave blago nagnute prema Djetetu kojega objema rukama drži sa svoje desne strane. Odjevena je u zelenu haljinu i zaogrnuta je tamnocrvenim maforionom obrubljenim zlatnim vezom s motivom zvjezdica upisanih u romboid, uklopljenih u motiv pisma. Krajevi maforiona uhvaćeni su zlatnom kopčom na Bogorodičinim prsima. Na ramenima i glavi Bogorodice nalaze se bogato stilizirane zvijezde. Krist je odjeven u narančastocrveni himation urešen stiliziranim zlatnim cvjetovima i zvjezdicama. U lijevoj ruci drži odmotani svitak s natpisom koji se danas, zbog oštećenosti, teško čita, ali je vjerojatno glasio: "ΠNA KV’ EΠ ’EME' TY ’HNEKEN ’' EXPICE ME". Tekst je citat Lukina Evanđelja 4,18: "Na meni je duh Gospodnji, jer me pomazao". Nalazimo ga na još nekoliko ikona u Dalmaciji, među ostalim i na onoj slikara Nikole Zanfuria iz Galerije umjetnina u Splitu, s kojom korčulanska ikona pokazuje velike sličnosti.
Ikona je u prošlosti bila preslikana na način da nova slika prati izvorni crtež. Preslik je, međutim, vremenom jako potamnio učinivši sliku tamnosmeđom, gotovo crnom.


Opis zatečenog stanja, analiza izvorne tehnologije i uzroka propadanja

Ikona Bogorodice s Djetetom zatečena je u izrazito lošem stanju. Drveni nositelj bio je u potpunosti izjeden crvotočinom, što mu je smanjilo čvrstoću i uzrokovalo znatna oštećenja slikanog sloja (Sl. 2). Znatni gubitci slikanog sloja najvećim su dijelom posljedica dugogodišnje izloženosti slike neprimjerenim mikroklimatskim uvjetima u prostoru zapuštene palače Lešić u gradu Korčuli. Oštećenja su bila dodatno pojačana krivljenjem drvene podloge, nastalim zbog pogreške u gradnji slike. Naime, daska na kojoj je slika rađena dobivena je tangencijalnim rezom, a oslik je rađen na strani koja je okrenuta prema srži drveta, odnosno onoj koja se više krivi. Gotovo neoštećena ostala je samo desna strana slike, ona koja je imala manji postotak mlađeg drva. Na lijevoj su strani daske dimenzionalne promjene nositelja uzrokovane oscilacijom parametara okoliša bile jače izražene.
Na većem dijelu površine oštećenja slikanog sloja sežu do preparacije. Na mjestima gdje i ona nedostaje uočavaju se linije urezane u površinu drveta. One su trebale osigurati bolje prianjanje preparacije uz podlogu. Preparacija je tutkalno-kredna, žućkasto-bijele boje, nanesena u debelom sloju. Aureole Bogorodice i Isusa, kao i čitava pozadina, rađene su na bolusnoj pozlati te bogato ukrašene puncama. Bolus je oker boje. Pozlata je na većem dijelu pozadine gotovo potpuno isprana; bolje je sačuvana tek u udubljenjima punca.
Iznad podslika nalazi se nekoliko lazurno nanesenih slojeva boje. Izvorno, lak je prekrivao cijelu površinu slike, s izuzetkom Bogorodičinog maforiona. Na njemu se nalazila tamnocrvena lazura.
Debeli sloj boje kojim je slika preslikana zapunio je punce na pozlaćenim površinama. Tamnjenjem boje likovni prikaz postao je gotovo neprepoznatljiv, a naslage nečistoće na površini slike dodatno su otežavale njeno iščitavanje. Jača diskoloracija preslika u gornjem sloju boje vjerojatno je posljedica premazivanja slike uljem.


Istraživanje

Analiza drveta provedena je na Šumarskom fakultetu u Zagrebu. Utvrđeno je da ono najvjerojatnije pripada botaničkom rodu Canarium spp. Vizualnim pregledom utvrđeno je da insekti koji su napali drvo pripadaju porodoci Anobiidae (vrste Nicobium castaneum i Anobium punctatum) i rodu Coleoptera.
Analiza broja i rasporeda slojeva obavljena je mikroskopiranjem površine slike, a mikroskopsko ispitivanje poprečnih presjeka uzoraka dalo je još točnije podatke o njenoj stratigrafiji. Rentgenskim snimanjem potvrđeno je da na ikoni postoje dva oslika. Zatečeni oslik uglavnom je pratio linije izvornog crteža, tek je Isusova ruka, ona u kojoj drži svitak, u cijelosti bila preslikana crnom bojom (Sl. 3). Stupanj očuvanosti izvornog slikanog sloja utvrđen je otvaranjem sondi (Sl. 5).
Mikrokemijskim ispitivanjem dokazana je prisutnost tutkala u izvornoj preparaciji. Kod uzorka bijele boje s kopče Bogorodičinog maforiona dokazana je prisutnost olovne bijele.


Konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat

Konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat na umjetnini bio je predmet diplomskog rada studentice Ivke Lipanović, a obavljen je pod mentorskim vodstvom Jurice Matijevića na Odsjeku za konzervaciju-restauraciju Umjetničke akademije u Splitu.
Već po dopremanju umjetnine u radionicu restauratori su se suočili s problemom krivljenja drvenog nositelja i šatorastog odizanja slikanog sloja čak i kod najmanjih promjena relativne vlažnosti. Radovi su se, stoga, obavljali u prostoriji sa strogo kontroliranim mikroklimatskim uvjetima.
Ravnanje nositelja izvršeno je u klimatskoj komori. Slikani sloj višekratno je podljepljivan jesetrinim tutkalom (10 %, Sl. 4). Na nekim mjestima podljepljivanje je izvršeno metodom bušenja (punktiranja). Najveće šatorasto odignuće nalazilo se na desnoj strani slike, u predjelu Bogorodičinog maforiona. Kako je površina slikanog sloja na tom dijelu bila veća od površine drvenog nositelja, a nije ju bilo moguće povećati ni nakon dugotrajnog boravka ikone u prostoriji s visokom relativnom vlažnošću, trebalo je ukloniti vrh odignuća kako bi se slikani sloj spustio i izravnao.
Slika je čišćena postupno. Prvo je mehanički, pod mikroskopom, uklonjen preslik. Izvorni lak nije se odmah uklanjao, no manja oštećenja ipak se nisu mogla izbjeći (Sl. 6). Osobita je pažnja posvećena čišćenju Bogorodičinog maforiona, gdje se preslik uklanjao pazeći da ne dođe do oštećivanja crvene lazure. Kako je prilikom mehaničkog čišćenja dolazilo do oštećivanja pozlate, odlučeno je da će se ti dijelovi slike čistiti kemijski (Sl. 7). Nakon pokusnih ispitivanja, kao otapalo odabrana je mravlja kiselina.
Diskolorirani izvorni lak potom je uklonjen dimetil-sulfoksidom.
Budući da je drveni nositelj bio jako oštećen djelovanjem drvnih insekata, najoštećenija mjesta trebalo je sanirati kitiranjem. Kanali su prvo mehanički očišćeni od izmeta i drvne prašine. Kako bi se osiguralo bolje vezivanje kita, drvo je zatim premazano otopinom Klucela E u etanolu (10%). Korišten je kit od 10-postotnog Klucela E u etanolu uz dodatak mikrobalona. Ovaj se kit mogao uštrcavati i u šupljine.
Kako bi se bolje definirao obris ikone, koji je nagrizanjem crvotočinom bio znatno narušen, rekonstruirano je veliko oštećenje u njenom gornjem rubnom dijelu (Sl. 8). Za rekonstrukciju je korišteno balsa drvo. Kako bi se osigurala reverzibilnost zahvata, ono nije zaljepljeno izravno na drvenu ploču, već na tanak sloj kita koji je prethodno na nju nanesen. Za ljepljenje je korišteno PVA ljepilo tvorničkog naziva Drvofix. Rekonstruirane površine retuširane su. Za retuš su korištene boje koje kao vezivo za pigment sadrže Klucel E (5% u etanolu i diaceton-alkoholu). Ovakav izbor veziva omogućava kasnije lako uklanjanje retuša bez oštećivanja izvorne preparacije. Retuširanjem drvenog nositelja dobiven je smireniji izgled podloge, bez prikrivanja informacija koje on u sebi nosi, primjerice tragova dijagonalnog zarezivanja drveta ili tragova punciranja vidljivih na oštećenom dijelu ikone. Usto, pažnja promatrača usmjerena je na likovni prikaz (Sl. 10).
Provedena je lokalna konsolidacija drvenog nositelja s poleđine otopinom Klucela E u etanolu (10 %).
Unutar oštećenja slikanog sloja nanesena je preparacija koja kao vezivo sadrži Klucel E (10 % u etanolu), a kao punilo šampanjsku kredu. Podslik je rađen pigmentima vezanim smjesom 5-postotne otopine Klucela E u etanolu i diaceton alkohola (1:1). Kao međulak korišten je Paraloid B72 u toluenu (20 %). Za retuš su korištene boje pripravljene od pigmenata vezanih kanadskim balzamom. Kako bi se ujednačio sjaj slikanog sloja, slika je na kraju lakirana otopinom  Regalreza 1094 u toluenu (30 %). Taj se lak nije nanosio preko pozlate (Sl. 9).
Kako bi se ikona dodatno zaštitila, izrađena je posebna kutija od beskiselinskog kartona, stirodura i platna u kojoj će se čuvati i izlagati (Sl. 11). U izradi kutije pomogli su restauratori Državnog arhiva u Splitu.


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Objavljeno: 1. lipnja 2009.








Lektorirano 2. studenog 2011. (M. G. Milić)

ikona_001
Sl. 1 Zatečeno stanje

ikona_002Sl. 2 Detalj zatečenog stanja

ikona_006Sl. 3 Rentgenski snimak

ikona_008Sl. 4 Podljepljivanje nestabilnog slikanog sloja

ikona_009Sl. 5 Sondiranje

ikona_010Sl. 6 Slika nakon uklanjanja preslika, prije čišćenja laka

ikona_011Sl. 7 Detalj izvorne pozlate nakon čišćenja

ikona_013Sl. 8 Rekonstrukcija oštećenja drvenog nositelja

ikona_017Sl. 9 Nanošenje laka

ikona_018Sl. 10 Slika nakon konzervatorsko-restauratorskog  zahvata

ikona_019Sl. 11 Kutija za izlaganje i pohranu









 

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Feb 22, 2017

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Smart Tips For Finding Tips

What the Expectations of SEO Services Should Be

SEO is the acronym for search engine optimization. Search engine optimization can be utilized by a service provider to increase the number of website visitors. High ranking placements in the search results page ensures that this number is increased. Accessibility of a site to a search engine is ensured by this service. Also improved is the probability of the page being ranked highly by the search engine.

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Study: My Understanding of Sites

Reasons for Using WordPress. Perhaps you have always wanted to design a website but then you do not have the skills.Do not worry as WordPress has got your back.As a business owner, you always need to consult with your web developer whenever you need to change or add details on your website. WordPress is easy to use and access. With its various themes, you will be guided on how to go about it. Before WordPress came, everyone had to deal with the developer even long after they are done with the web design, even to change the smallest details, one couldn’t do it on their own, so every time your called developer you had to pay them. With WordPress created websites, they are accessible from any kind of screen or browser as long as you have proper internet connection. WordPress, enables you to easily add so many plug-ins on your website as long as they don’t conflict.These days most websites have a video or audio icon on them. This means that there is improved time management since you can have an entire weeks schedule and it will be updated to your website the date and time that you have indicated. The link adding happens on your control panel. Most people look for websites that once they are done reading through your website or watching videos, they can then say something about it, you also feel nice getting feedback from your viewers.
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This means that website created using WordPress are more secure than any other website, always inquire from your developer whether they have WordPress software, and if they don’t recommend it to them. With WordPress however, the software creates websites that are already optimized, either to Bing or Microsoft Network (MSN), so you do not have to worry that your website will not be seen by search engines.
The Essentials of Sites – Breaking Down the Basics
People create websites so that they can be able to market their products, services or even themselves.Allowing you to have eye catching headlines on your website or blog, WordPress has made it easy for people to become more curious with the headlines they get on your website. Unlike other website software where you have to pay a developer to help you crack it, WordPress is absolutely free and comes with unlimited validity.If you have any troubleshooting problems, there are a large number of people using WordPress who are ready to help. Better still, more people are embracing this technology with open arms.

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6 Facts About Activities Everyone Thinks Are True

On the Sudden Growth in the Popularity of eSports When you see a stadium full of enthusiastic fans, you can no longer assume that they are there to watch professional sports stars. You may also find professional gamers, donning their headsets and taking part in video game competitions known as eSports. In little more than two decades, eSports has grown from its roots in local arcade game competitions into a competitive event that is the equal of many types of organized sporting events in terms of interest and attendance. Just like traditional sports, this level of audience interest has brought in major sponsors and even network television coverage. There has been some amount debate as to whether or not eSports actually qualifies as a sporting event. Traditionalists claim that the virtual aspect of the competition makes it impossible to call eSports a real sport. Others would claim that eSports is actually just as skill-based as any other sport. Those who participate in eSports competition must have extremely fast reflexes and be able to command amazing hand-eye coordination. Gamers must also be extremely knowledgeable about the games they are playing. Does it really matter whether or not eSports actually qualifies as a real sport? Major league eSports competitions actually draw a number of online viewers that exceeds the viewership of many other major professional sports. Gaming channels on Youtube actually have more followers than any other type with the exception of music channels. When you have viewing audiences rivaling the most popular professional sports, you can bet that eSports will continue to grow in popularity in the future.
Getting Creative With Sports Advice
Many people who are unfamiliar with eSports may be wondering what an eSports competition looks like. In an eSports competition the gaming is facilitated by video gaming systems. The game itself is broadcast throughout the facility on large screen monitors that can be viewed by the entire audience. Generally, on the monitors, eSports is broadcast in split screen fashion, with the gaming field that the participant sees taking up the larger portion of the screen, with the participants inset at the bottom or top of the screen.
Practical and Helpful Tips: Sports
Many people have pretty stereotyped views of what gaming competitions may look like. Instead of propagating stereotypes of gamers wearing headsets, chugging energy drinks, it is better to tune in and watch some eSports competition to see why so many people are interested in this growing phenomenon. Already eSports competitions are extremely popular, and they are still growing in popularity. Those who are interested in learning more about eSports competition should start out by watching eSports events online. Online eSports TV channels, like DingIt TV, offer people a detailed view of this eSports competitions. To get started, all you have to do is search the Internet for more information about eSports.

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Finding Ways To Keep Up With Entertainment

How to Find Great eSports Streaming eSports are among the most exciting and popular spectator events around. In a world dominated by spectator sports, eSports gaming competitions are quickly drawing crowds that rival even the most popular sports. Matches among the leading eSports competitors are broadcast on TV and streamed live online all around the world. If you are interested in gaming and love to watch people play who are especially skilled, you have to check eSports broadcasts. eSports first rose in prominence in Korea and other Asian countries where it is considered to be one the most important spectator events. The largest fan bases in the sport can be found in Korea, as well as the largest audiences for major eSports events. While it is true that gaming competitions were popular during the 1990’s, technological constraints did not allow them to achieve the kind of popularity they have today. However, thanks to the sudden growth in global communications technologies beginning around the year 2000, gaming competitions became less local and more of a world wide phenomenon. Today you can view online gaming content in a wide variety of venues. In fact, your will find that gaming channels are among the most popular subscription channels on Youtube, number two behind music channels. However, the gaming content that you view on a gaming channel is a lot less competitive than the eSports content you will find on an eSports streaming service. The gaming channels you find on video services like Youtube are primarily for humor and entertainment as opposed to eSports streaming platforms that stream the most competitive eSports available on a daily basis.
The Essentials of Activities – The Basics
Because of the popularity of online eSports streaming platforms, like DingIt TV, audiences for eSports in North America and Asia are now beginning to rival those in Asia. Even in the United States and Europe, you will find audience attendance at eSports events that actually rivals the crowds attending professional sports events. Recently, a leading sports website reported that eSports actually attracted more viewers than any other sporting event but professional football.
Lessons Learned from Years with Sports
Recently, there has been some debate to whether or not eSports are actually real sports. Those who believe it is not actually a sport say that it depends too much on the video game to facilitate game play. However, those who support the idea of video game competitions as sports competitions recognize the great amount of skill and incredible hand-eye coordination gaming takes. The easiest way to find the best in eSports action is to search the Internet for gaming competitions being streamed online. Those who would like to learn more about eSports competitions should begin by searching the Internet for an online eSports streaming platform, like DingIt TV. To begin, the best thing you can do is search the Internet for eSports online streaming platforms.

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Why not learn more about Money?

Ways of Experiencing a Fruitful Crowdfunding Event

Crowd funding has been in existence for some time now. But, it has become popular recently. You can access crowd funding from different websites and platforms. Entrepreneurs who are starting up business should take advantage of crowd funding to raise cash. The traditional methods of acquiring finances are very different from this option. On this note, you have to impress the audience in order to get funding. You are to make an appeal to the audience so as to get funds and support.

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There is a need of building up on an audience and fan base as you proceed with planning and creating strategies. You are after numbers and hence using social media would be the most convenient means of reaching your goal. You are also at the advantage of reaching out to people from all over the world.

You require to prepare people psychologically on when the project will be taking place. Come up with an exciting tactic that will leave the audience wanting to witness the crowd funding project.
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You should always recall that the audience will be you crowd funding. Once they get on board and support your idea, they will be the first consumers too. While using this strategy, note that the products are created once the funding issue is done. It would therefore be wise to keep on communicating with your fans even after the fundraising. Most importantly, let the audience know when they will finally have access to the product.
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Begin by listing down the foundation of your speech. Creativity is of the essence on this matter. The main aspect you want to gain from the speech are being able to engage the audience and appeal to them as well. Once you manage to capture their attention through the header and the introduction sentences, you are good to go.

You are advised to stick to your story. Give a brief history what of what motivated you to build up on your idea. Let the audience b aware of the challenges you have been facing. You can opt to use humor though you have to be tactful about it.

You should think of a video once you have finished the written piece. There are those who prefer to watch as opposed to reading and hence a video would create a good impact. Note that the optimal length of the video should be around three minutes.

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How I Achieved Maximum Success with Diving

Tips On How To Buy The Ideal Scuba Mask.

It will be important to consider several decisions when it comes to buying a scuba mask. Ensure that you will be able to familiarize yourself with the mask first before you get to buy it. In that case you will be able to know which one suits you best. With that here are some of the given factors which will need to be considered in the given case.

Either buying or renting the masks is one of the problems that the divers have to deal with in this case. In diving you will find that owning your equipment will be the ideal way to do it that will be as well as the mask. That way you will be able to get the one that fits you well and suits your style and preferences. In many cases you will find that when dealing with the rentals, they will not always come in the way you would want to have you like. The only time the rentals would come in handy is when you find that a person has forgotten to carry theirs and they need to go for diving.

The market will give you a variety of scuba masks as well as the swim masks. You will find that they are made differently and the two cannot be confused with each other. You will find that the scuba masks are made in such a way that they are able to sustain the pressure that comes with diving unlike the swim masks.

You will find that they will tend to have a very strong tempered glass for that purpose which is not the case with the swim mask. It will be important to consider a case where the air mask will be meant for the balancing of the pressure under the water. This are very important features that any diver should look for in a scuba mask which will not be the case found in a swim mask.

Consider how well the mask will be able to fit in this case. When you get the skirt wrapped around you then you will find that there are no gaps available in such a case. When you get an ill fitting mask you will find that the water will be able to flow inside very easily which can lead to choking and drowning in other cases. That is why you have to look for a store that they give the fitting measurements for their customers before the buy. When you look at the mask in this case you will find that the pool is a good start to ensure that it will be right to use in large water bodies.

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Interesting Research on Resources – What No One Ever Told You

The Advantages Of A Hoseless Dive Computer

A hoseless dive PC is a remote and air facilitated compass which is planned for bouncing while considering an extension or lessening in pneumatic drive as an individual is diving. There are a few focal points that are joined by the utilization of a hoseless plunge PC, for example, the PC permits following of the decompression status as it anticipates decompression infection in jumpers this is on account of it tracks the nitrogen levels in the body of a jumper by controlling the measure of nitrogen admission and out take in the jumper as it is critical to likewise guarantee that the jumper gets great quality air as they are making a plunge the ocean.

It also allows an individual to spend more time under water this is because it has a maximum number of feet that the diver can be able to dive deep and it also limits the period of time the individual will be in the water as this often helps prevent decompression sickness in an individual.

Bounce PCs also help in giving accurate time and significance recordings when appeared differently in relation to the conventional strategy for figuring the significance and time that the jumper spends in water as it was much of the time off course, yet the usage of the dive PC progresses exact estimations and meanwhile it in like manner ensures that there are no more dive table bumbles this is in light of the fact that hop PCs actually plays out each one of the considers for the decompression status of the jumper and besides register the decompression time and the rooftop significance this is just in case an individual encounters a decompression.

The dive computer also has accent rate indicators which often indicate to the diver the rate at which they are supposed to ascend this is because divers are taught on how to ascend slowly so that they do not exceed their set maximum ascend rate this is because if they do so they may suffer from decompression sickness and it also gives the diver a warning in the event where they are ascending at a fast rate than they are supposed to.

Hoseless bounce PCs are in like manner known to consider a decrease in weight when an individual ascensions to shallow profundities and thusly an individual can have the ability to know the rate at which they ought to ascend on to the surface of the water and this is frequently seen as more exact when stood out from standard tables which are thought to be less correct.

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