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Home PRAKSA Diplomski rad: Oplakivanje Krista (samostan Gospe od Pojišana, Split)

Diplomski rad: Oplakivanje Krista (samostan Gospe od Pojišana, Split)

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oplakivanje

Ana RADIĆ (diplomirani konzervator-restaurator)





MENTOR: Jurica Matijević (predavač i jedan od voditelja specijalističkog usmjerenja za konzervaciju i restauraciju štafelajnih slika i polikromiranog drva Odsjeka za konzervatorstvo-restauratorstvo Umjetničke akademije)

S A Ž E T A K
Autorica u članku izvještava o konzervatorsko-restauratorskom zahvatu na uljanoj slici na platnu Oplakivanje Krista iz kapucinskog samostana Gospe od Pojišana u Splitu. Slika je rad nepoznatog majstora iz XVII. stoljeća.

UVOD

Slika Oplakivanje Krista složena je višefiguralna kompozicija. Mrtvo Kristovo tijelo pridržavaju Josip iz Arimateje i Nikodem, a oplakuju ga Ivan Evanđelist, Bogorodica, Marija Magdalena i skupina svetih žena.

Iako pretrpana likovima, slika ostavlja dojam zanimljivog ostvarenja XVII. stoljeća, nastalog u neobičnom preklapanju realističkog i idealističkog. Vješto je naslikana odjeća ožalošćenih likova u prednjem dijelu slike, koja se prepliće u gustim naborima, a s posebnom osjetljivošću za učinke svjetla. Dok je, dakle, kolorit izražajan i zanimljiv, proporcije pojedinih likova su nedovoljno kvalitetno izvedene.

Sliku je na temelju stilske analize teško pripisati nekom poznatom umjetniku ili školi. U elementima tenebroso slikarstva očituje se utjecaj slikarstva Venecije druge polovice XVII. stoljeća, no cjelokupni dojam slike, usprkos određenim elementima mletačkog slikarstva, ima specifične odlike pa problem atribucije i dalje ostaje otvoren.

 

ZATEČENO STANJE

Iako nema dokumentiranih zahvata, na slici su oni nedvojbeno izvedeni. Izvedeni zahvati uvelike su odgovorni za izgled i stanje slike u kakvom je mi danas nalazimo. Nesumnjivo, slika je skraćena, jasno su vidljivi tragovi presijecanja niti na trima rubovima platna, a i sam slikani sloj seže do samih rubova nositelja. Tekstilni nositelj je laneno platno zatečenih ukupnih dimenzija 137 x 95 cm. Nositelj je sastavljen od dva komada platna vertikalno spojena šavom. Šav se proteže cijelom širinom nositelja, a na licu slike je ostavio trag u obliku blagog izbočenja. Platno je tkano gustim dijagonalnim, tkz. keper vezom. U našem slučaju lice, odnosno nositelja slikanog sloja predstavlja dijagonalna tekstura platna. Gledano u cjelini, platno je čvrsto, dobro očuvano i napeto. Osim manjih oštećenja na rubovima platna uzrokovanih korozijom željeznih čavala, nalazimo i nekoliko strukturnih oštećenja; rupa i razderotina na njegovoj sredini. S poleđine su ta područja od daljnjeg oštećenja sanirana dvjema zakrpama. Tutkalno- kredna preparacija  je nanesena u tankom sloju i utisnuta je u strukturu platna. Slikani sloj  je također tanak, pa se u cjelini izrazito ocrtava tekstura platna.

Oštećenja i gubici slikanog sloja su veliki. Na područjima likova nailazimo na manje gubitke, dok u područjima pozadine nedostaje velik dio slikanog sloja. Na plaštu Bogorodice prisutna je diskoloracija originalne plave draperije u zelene nijanse, a na plaštu Josipa iz Arimateje prisutna je promjena indeksa refrakcije slikanog sloja. Slika je lakirana i debljina laka znatno varira. Lak je izrazito taman, a na mjestima gdje je nanesen u tanjem sloju, kao što se može vidjeti, i žut.

Neobičan je kontrast stanja sačuvanosti slikanog sloja pozadine i likova. Vjerojatno je to posljedica utjecaja pigmenata korištenih za izradu pozadine na stabilnost slikanog sloja i preparacije te neadekvatnih zahvata podljepljivanja i agresivnih sredstava korištenih pri uklanjanju laka. Iako nedostaje velik dio slikanog sloja i preparacije, slika i dalje ostavlja dojam cjelovitosti. Oštećenja su u prethodnim zahvatima popunjana žutim kitom. Na slici ne nalazimo tragove retuša.

Slika posjeduje masivni crni profilirani ukrasni okvir. Ukras okvira izrađen je tehnikom kompo i cvjetnog je uzorka. Oštećenja na okviru je malo, a najizraženija su ona na uglovima, gdje je otpala preparacija i sloj boje. Upravo na tim oštećenjima jasno se vidi da je okvir preslikan crnom uljenom bojom, a da je u originalu bio pozlaćen uljanom pozlatom. Površina okvira prekrivena je slojem prašine.

 

KONZERVATORSKO-RESTAURATORSKI ZAHVAT

Da bismo pristupili konzervatorsko restauratorskim zahvatima na umjetnini, bilo je potrebno provjeriti reakcije slike na uvjete izloženosti  toplini i vlazi. Ovo preliminarno ispitivanje jako je važno kako bismo pravilno odabrali sredstva kojima ćemo tretirati sliku. Slikani sloj nije pokazao nikakve znakove oštećenosti, stoga je ustanovljeno da slika nije osjetljiva na umjerenu i kontroliranu toplinu.  Slika je pokazala uobičajene reakcije platna na vlagu u vidu blagog opuštanja, a potom stezanja, što ne uzrokuje oštećenja slikanog sloja.

U cjelini je slikani sloj stabilan, stoga nije bilo potrebe za izradom facinga za čitavu površinu slikanog sloja. Konsolidacija slikanog sloja facingom bila je potrebna isključivo na rubnim dijelovima. U tu svrhu pripremili smo 20-postotnu otopinu BEVE u ksilenu. Facing rubnih dijelova konsolidirat će nestabilne dijelove slikanog sloja i osigurati ih tijekom zahvata čišćenja poleđine i spuštanja rubnih dijelova slike.

Nakon skidanja slike s podokvira pristupilo se mehaničkom uklanjanju nečistoća s rubnih dijelova poleđine platna korištenjem skalpela. Zakrpe su uklonjene jednostavno; veziva gotovo da i nije bilo. Rubovi slike spušteni su kombiniranim djelovanjem vlage, topline i pritiska. Nakon spuštanja rubnih dijelova slike nije više bilo potrebe za facingom te je uklonjen.

Probe uklanjanja laka izvedene su na području svijetle površine pejzaža s lazurno naslikanim stablom. Do konačne recepture došlo se nakon testiranja mnogih otapala. Ustanovljeno je da se, barem na području pejzaža, nalaze dva sloja laka. Gornji sloj lakše se uklanjao, a donji je zaostajao u strukturi slike. Gornji sloj je vjerojatno nanesen tijekom restauratorskog zahvata izvedenog u prošlosti. Pri tom zahvatu stari lak nije uklonjen u potpunosti, nego su znatni ostaci laka zaostali u udubljenjima slikanog sloja te su se s vremenom povezali s novonanesenim lakom. Reakcija laka na otapala sugerira da se ne radi o klasičnim reverzibilnim lakovima poput mastiksa ili damara. Kao najučinkovitija receptura pokazala se smjesa nitro- razrjeđivača, acetona i vode u omjeru 1:2:0.5.; stoga je lak uklanjan tom recepturom. Ostaci su dočišćivani smjesom nitro- razrjeđivača i acetona 1:1 te mehanički, skalpelom. Uklanjanjem laka izlazila su na vidjelo do tada skrivena oštećenja pozadine. Sondiranjem je ustanovljeno da pozadina ne skriva detalje pejzaža ili pećine. Na tom je području lak je ostavljen jer je postojala opravdana opasnost od daljnjeg oštećivanja već abradiranog slikanog sloja. S likova je uklonjen lak u najvećoj mogućoj mjeri. Uklanjanjem laka na likovima je postignut pozitivan efekt; istaknut je izrazit kolorit. Nakon uklanjanja laka i kita pojavila se potreba za djelomičnom konsolidacijom slikanog sloja. Lak je na mjestima najvećih oštećenja držao slikani sloj kompaktnim i njegovim uklanjanjem došlo je do osipanja boje. Ta situacija najizraženija je na području Bogorodičina plašta. Parcijalno je slikani sloj konsolidiran 4-postotnim zečjim tutalom.

Sanaciji strukturnih oštećenja platna pristupilo se nakon što se uklonio kit kojim su takva oštećenja bila ispunjena. Slika je okrenuta licem prema radnoj plohi obloženoj silkoniziranim papirom, kako ne bi došlo do oštećivanja slikanog sloja.

Na područja oštećenja umetnuti su oblikom prilagođeni komadi novog platna. Fiksiranje je izvršeno korištenjem termoplastičke smole za lijepljenje tekstila; Tekstil Schweispulver No. 5060. Za umetanje je odabrano platno slične gustoće i debljine niti kao i originalno platno.

S obzirom da je u cjelini tekstilni nositelj u dobrom stanju, nije bilo potrebe za zahvatom dubliranja, nego je bila dovoljna metoda ojačavanja rubnih dijelova platna, strip lining. Prije izrade strip lininga veća strukturna oštećenja dodatno smo ojačati takozvanim tekstilnim tašelima. Od poliesterskog platna tvorničkog naziva Stabiltex izrezana su dva organska oblika mnogo većih dimenzija od dimenzija strukturnih oštećenja platna. Na organski oblik poliesterskog platna glačalom je nanesen 84 µm BEVA film. Na laneni tekstilni nositelj također je glačalom nanesen oblikom prilagođen 84 µm BEVA film. Preko silikoniziranog Melinexa korištenjem toplog glačala BEVA film je aktiviran, a hladnim glačalom trajno su fiksirana ojačanja na originalno platno.

Strip lining izveden je na sljedeći način: na poleđinu tekstilnog nositelja fiksirane su 4 cm široke trake 84 µm BEVA filma. Rub BEVA filma unutar slike izrezan je ravno, a vanjski je rub BEVA filma prilagođen obrisu originalnog platna. Trake novog platna, 15 cm široke, izrezane su pazeći pri tom da osnova koja se manje isteže od potke prati dužinu ruba originalnog platna. Niti osnove smo izvukli, tako da ostanu niti potke širine 2 cm. Svaka druga nit potke je uklonjena a svaka četvrta nit potke je skraćena na pola širine. Tim postupkom biti će postignut postupan prijelaz na originalno platno odnosno izbjegnuto je kasnije ocrtavanje traka za strip lining na licu slike. Niti potke premazane su 40-postotnom otopinom BEVA-e u toluenu. Trake strip lininga fiksirane su BEVA filmom koji je ranije nanesen na originalno platno, vrućom iglom niti potke su fiksirane a potom su toplim i hladnim glačalom u potpunosti vezane za podlogu, odnosno originalno platno. Na novoizrađeni podokvir francuskog, dvojnog klinastog tipa napeto je novo laneno platno, tkz. loose lining, platno koje neće biti fizički vezano uz originalno platno. Platno je predhodno tretirano toplom vodom i istezano te tim postupkom dovedeno u isto neelastično stanje kao i originalno. Platno je također prije napinjanja  impregnirano i 20-postotnom BEVA-om u toluenu. Osnovna funkcija loose lininga je amortiziranje kretanja originalnog platna, odnosno pružanje oslonca i zaštite originalnom platnu u slučaju njegovog opuštanja.

Samu sliku smo na podokvir napeli nakon savijanja rubova, i to vlažnu, što je potpuno uklonilo deformacije platna nastale pri djelomičnom konsolidiranju slikanog sloja. Slika je zakucana bakrenim čavlićima.

Da smo odlučili rekonstruirati sva oštećenja slikanog sloja koja su prisutna na slici, sigurno bi se radilo o vrlo visokom postotku rekonstrukcije. Takav pristup ovoj umjetnini ne bi u svim segmentima bilo moguće opravdati; sasvim je sigurno da bi na mnogim mjestima retuš bio nagađanje. Umjetnina ‘Oplakivanje Krista’ je i prije zahvata ostavljala dojam cjelovitosti, prvenstveno zbog ujednačenosti boje slikanog sloja i samih oštećenja u pozadini. Odlučili smo se stoga na djelomičan zahvat rekonstrukcije koji će uspostaviti cjelinu među likovima koja je najviše narušena, s obzirom da su slikani intenzivnijim tonovima.

Područja koje će se kredirati očišćena su od nataložene prljavštine mehanički, skalpelom. Na očišćeno platno prije preparacije nanesen je sloj Klucela E u etanolu kao impregnacija. Za izradu preparacije također je korišten Klucel E; nabubren u etanolu i s dodatkom šampanjske krede. Za postizanje teksture nije bilo potrebno mnogo intervencija, jer se slijeganjem preparacije zadržala tekstura platna, što je odlika i sačuvanog slikanog sloja. Nakon sušenja kredne preparacije, dlijetima smo dodatno korigirali nepravilnosti i viškove. Dočišćavanje rubova izvedeno je polusuhim vatenim tamponom navlaženim salivom ili acetonom. Kredna preparacija izolirana je slojem 7-postotne otopine šelaka u etilnom alkoholu kako bi se smanjila njena upojnost i osjetljivost na vodu. Podslik završnog retuša izveden je akvarelnim bojama, ton svjetlijima od originala. Tijekom podslikavanja ton boje se provjeravao nanošenjem Shellsola T na osušenu površinu, čime se simulira situacija nakon nanošenja laka.

Kao glavna odrednica pri izboru odgovarajućeg izolacijskog laka nametnula se činjenica da nedostaje velik dio slikanog sloja. Neadekvatan odabir otapala može dovesti u situaciju da se čitav tekstilni nositelj natopi, odnosno impregnira lakom. Tekstilni je nositelj u jako dobro stanju, zbog čega se ranije i nije pristupilo dubliranju. Neadekvatnim lakom savim bi se sigurno pospješilo propadanje tekstilnog nositelja u vidu povećane kiselosti, odnosno smanjene elastičnosti. S druge je stranebilo potrebno izabrati lak koji će dovoljno intenzivirati boje, prvenstveno tamne tonove radi izvedbe što kvalitetnijeg retuša. Za lakiranje nakon podslika odabran je 16-postotni damar u toluenu (m/v) sa dodatkom dietil-benzena.Toluen je relativno brzo hlapivo otapalo i uglavnom se zbog toga ne preporučuje prilikom lakiranja kistom. No upravo to svojstvo hlapljivosti osiguralo je neprodiranje laka na poleđinu platna. Dietil- benzen je dodan u otopinu u svrhu usporavanja hlapljivosti, odnosno boljeg liveliranja i time jačeg sjaja laka.

Retuš je u najvećoj mjeri izveden isključivo unutar oštećenja na koja je nanesena kredna preparacija. Po završetku retuša u tim područjima, a u svrhu uspostavljanja ravnoteže u odnosima likova pristupilo se na nekim mjestima i retušu nekrediranih oštećenja. Za retuš su korištene boje pripravljene od pigmenata vezanih Canada balsamom. Retuš je izveden u formi sitnih točkica. Nakon što je slika u potpunosti retuširana nanesen je završni lak. Za završno lakiranje pripremili smo 10-postotnu otopinu Paraloida B72 u toluenu (m/v), koju smo nanjeli sprejanjem. Zbog toluena koji je brzo hlapljivo otapalo navedena receptura daje slici mat efekt. Lak smo nanosili tri puta, sve dok se površina slike nije zasitila lakom i ujednačila.

S ukrasnog okvira prvenstveno je uklonjena nataložena prljavština i prašina te su kitirana i retuširana oštećenja na rubovima. Na uklanjanje crnog preslika nismo se odlučili jer bi to bio izuzetno zahtjevan zahvat budući da su i sloj pozlate i sloj crne boje na uljenoj osnovi. Za pretpostaviti je da je okvir preslikan jer je zlato bilo jako oštećeno, tako da je upitno kakav bi se rezultat postigao uklanjanjem preslika. Oštećenja su kitirana celuloznim kitom tvorničkog naziva Drvosan i retuširana akrilnom bojom. Sliku smo fiksirali u ukrasni okvir pomoću aluminijskih pločica koje smo za okvir pričvrstili vijcima od prokroma.

 

 

 

 

Objavljeno: 4. travnja 2006.

 

 

 

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Zatečeno stanje, pogled s lica.

 

 

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Zatečeno stanje, pogled s poleđine.

 

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Oštećenja slikanog sloja.

 

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Odvajanje slike od podokvira.

 

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Probe uklanjanja laka.

 

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Fiksiranje tekstilnog umetka.

 

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Podstavljanje rubova slike novim platnom.

 

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Podstavljanje rubova slike novim platnom.

 

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Napinjanje slike na novi podokvir.

 

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Rekonstrukcija preparacije unutar oštećenja.

 

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Rekonstrukcija preparacije unutar oštećenja - detalj.

 

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Lakiranje nakon podslikavanja.

 

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Završni retuš.

 

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Završni retuš - detalj.

 

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Izgled slike nakon konzervatorsko-restauratorskog zahvata.
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Finding Ways To Keep Up With Entertainment

How to Find Great eSports Streaming eSports are among the most exciting and popular spectator events around. In a world dominated by spectator sports, eSports gaming competitions are quickly drawing crowds that rival even the most popular sports. Matches among the leading eSports competitors are broadcast on TV and streamed live online all around the world. If you are interested in gaming and love to watch people play who are especially skilled, you have to check eSports broadcasts. eSports first rose in prominence in Korea and other Asian countries where it is considered to be one the most important spectator events. The largest fan bases in the sport can be found in Korea, as well as the largest audiences for major eSports events. While it is true that gaming competitions were popular during the 1990’s, technological constraints did not allow them to achieve the kind of popularity they have today. However, thanks to the sudden growth in global communications technologies beginning around the year 2000, gaming competitions became less local and more of a world wide phenomenon. Today you can view online gaming content in a wide variety of venues. In fact, your will find that gaming channels are among the most popular subscription channels on Youtube, number two behind music channels. However, the gaming content that you view on a gaming channel is a lot less competitive than the eSports content you will find on an eSports streaming service. The gaming channels you find on video services like Youtube are primarily for humor and entertainment as opposed to eSports streaming platforms that stream the most competitive eSports available on a daily basis.
The Essentials of Activities – The Basics
Because of the popularity of online eSports streaming platforms, like DingIt TV, audiences for eSports in North America and Asia are now beginning to rival those in Asia. Even in the United States and Europe, you will find audience attendance at eSports events that actually rivals the crowds attending professional sports events. Recently, a leading sports website reported that eSports actually attracted more viewers than any other sporting event but professional football.
Lessons Learned from Years with Sports
Recently, there has been some debate to whether or not eSports are actually real sports. Those who believe it is not actually a sport say that it depends too much on the video game to facilitate game play. However, those who support the idea of video game competitions as sports competitions recognize the great amount of skill and incredible hand-eye coordination gaming takes. The easiest way to find the best in eSports action is to search the Internet for gaming competitions being streamed online. Those who would like to learn more about eSports competitions should begin by searching the Internet for an online eSports streaming platform, like DingIt TV. To begin, the best thing you can do is search the Internet for eSports online streaming platforms.

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Feb 20, 2017

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Why not learn more about Money?

Ways of Experiencing a Fruitful Crowdfunding Event

Crowd funding has been in existence for some time now. But, it has become popular recently. You can access crowd funding from different websites and platforms. Entrepreneurs who are starting up business should take advantage of crowd funding to raise cash. The traditional methods of acquiring finances are very different from this option. On this note, you have to impress the audience in order to get funding. You are to make an appeal to the audience so as to get funds and support.

You need to come up with a strategic plan before kick starting the fundraising project. Once you get the required funding, make sure that your project kicks off. This means bringing together your designs, team and strategy.
There is a need of building up on an audience and fan base as you proceed with planning and creating strategies. You are after numbers and hence using social media would be the most convenient means of reaching your goal. You are also at the advantage of reaching out to people from all over the world.

You require to prepare people psychologically on when the project will be taking place. Come up with an exciting tactic that will leave the audience wanting to witness the crowd funding project.
What Has Changed Recently With Money?

You should always recall that the audience will be you crowd funding. Once they get on board and support your idea, they will be the first consumers too. While using this strategy, note that the products are created once the funding issue is done. It would therefore be wise to keep on communicating with your fans even after the fundraising. Most importantly, let the audience know when they will finally have access to the product.
Money – Getting Started & Next Steps

Begin by listing down the foundation of your speech. Creativity is of the essence on this matter. The main aspect you want to gain from the speech are being able to engage the audience and appeal to them as well. Once you manage to capture their attention through the header and the introduction sentences, you are good to go.

You are advised to stick to your story. Give a brief history what of what motivated you to build up on your idea. Let the audience b aware of the challenges you have been facing. You can opt to use humor though you have to be tactful about it.

You should think of a video once you have finished the written piece. There are those who prefer to watch as opposed to reading and hence a video would create a good impact. Note that the optimal length of the video should be around three minutes.

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Feb 20, 2017

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How I Achieved Maximum Success with Diving

Tips On How To Buy The Ideal Scuba Mask.

It will be important to consider several decisions when it comes to buying a scuba mask. Ensure that you will be able to familiarize yourself with the mask first before you get to buy it. In that case you will be able to know which one suits you best. With that here are some of the given factors which will need to be considered in the given case.

Either buying or renting the masks is one of the problems that the divers have to deal with in this case. In diving you will find that owning your equipment will be the ideal way to do it that will be as well as the mask. That way you will be able to get the one that fits you well and suits your style and preferences. In many cases you will find that when dealing with the rentals, they will not always come in the way you would want to have you like. The only time the rentals would come in handy is when you find that a person has forgotten to carry theirs and they need to go for diving.

The market will give you a variety of scuba masks as well as the swim masks. You will find that they are made differently and the two cannot be confused with each other. You will find that the scuba masks are made in such a way that they are able to sustain the pressure that comes with diving unlike the swim masks.

You will find that they will tend to have a very strong tempered glass for that purpose which is not the case with the swim mask. It will be important to consider a case where the air mask will be meant for the balancing of the pressure under the water. This are very important features that any diver should look for in a scuba mask which will not be the case found in a swim mask.

Consider how well the mask will be able to fit in this case. When you get the skirt wrapped around you then you will find that there are no gaps available in such a case. When you get an ill fitting mask you will find that the water will be able to flow inside very easily which can lead to choking and drowning in other cases. That is why you have to look for a store that they give the fitting measurements for their customers before the buy. When you look at the mask in this case you will find that the pool is a good start to ensure that it will be right to use in large water bodies.

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Feb 20, 2017

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Interesting Research on Resources – What No One Ever Told You

The Advantages Of A Hoseless Dive Computer

A hoseless dive PC is a remote and air facilitated compass which is planned for bouncing while considering an extension or lessening in pneumatic drive as an individual is diving. There are a few focal points that are joined by the utilization of a hoseless plunge PC, for example, the PC permits following of the decompression status as it anticipates decompression infection in jumpers this is on account of it tracks the nitrogen levels in the body of a jumper by controlling the measure of nitrogen admission and out take in the jumper as it is critical to likewise guarantee that the jumper gets great quality air as they are making a plunge the ocean.

It also allows an individual to spend more time under water this is because it has a maximum number of feet that the diver can be able to dive deep and it also limits the period of time the individual will be in the water as this often helps prevent decompression sickness in an individual.

Bounce PCs also help in giving accurate time and significance recordings when appeared differently in relation to the conventional strategy for figuring the significance and time that the jumper spends in water as it was much of the time off course, yet the usage of the dive PC progresses exact estimations and meanwhile it in like manner ensures that there are no more dive table bumbles this is in light of the fact that hop PCs actually plays out each one of the considers for the decompression status of the jumper and besides register the decompression time and the rooftop significance this is just in case an individual encounters a decompression.

The dive computer also has accent rate indicators which often indicate to the diver the rate at which they are supposed to ascend this is because divers are taught on how to ascend slowly so that they do not exceed their set maximum ascend rate this is because if they do so they may suffer from decompression sickness and it also gives the diver a warning in the event where they are ascending at a fast rate than they are supposed to.

Hoseless bounce PCs are in like manner known to consider a decrease in weight when an individual ascensions to shallow profundities and thusly an individual can have the ability to know the rate at which they ought to ascend on to the surface of the water and this is frequently seen as more exact when stood out from standard tables which are thought to be less correct.

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