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Home PRAKSA Čišćenje kamenih spomenika Tusculuma

Čišćenje kamenih spomenika Tusculuma

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Ela MRDULJAŠ, Marija ANČIĆ (Konzervacija-restauracija kamena, III. godina)

MENTOR: Ivo Donelli, pred. (voditelj specijalističkog usmjerenja za konzervaciju-restauraciju kamena)

 

S A Ž E T A K
Kameni spomenici i fragmenti na kojima je obavljen konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat nalaze se u vrtu Tusculuma, zgrade smještene na Manastirinama u Saloni. Predmeti koji su čišćeni bili su: kamena česma, dva kamena stola s po četiri klupice i jedna kamena klupa. Metoda rada određena je s obzirom na vrstu i stupanj onečišćenja. Metoda suhog i mokrog mikropjeskarenja korištena je kod odstranjivanja inkrustracija na česmi i manjeg stola sa četiri klupice te za uklanjanje lišajeva na većem stolu. Grafiti s lica česme i klupe uklonjeni su suhim mikropjeskarenjem.


Povijesno-umjetnička bilješka (položaj, opis, datacija)

Tusculum se nalazi na Manastirinama; za posjetitelja salonitanskih starina najvrjednijem i najzornijem, pa i najbolje uređenom, istraženom i održavanom kompleksu. Don Frane Bulić dao ga je sagraditi u povodu Prvoga kongresa za starokršćansku arheologiju koji je održan 1894. godine u Solinu i Splitu. Taj je kongres održan u nazočnosti i uz sudjelovanje tada najuglednijih svjetskih znanstvenika koji su proučavali starokršćansko razdoblje. Zgrada je trebala poslužiti kao sjedište arheološkim ekipama koje u Solinu istražuju, te kao mjesto za rekreativne i znanstvene susrete. Upravo je zbog toga Bulić dao zgradi ime Tusculum, oponašajući glasovitoga Cicerona, odnosno ime njegovoga ljetnikovca u Tusculumu pokraj Rima. Zgrada je sagrađena u duhu onoga doba, pa je u nju ugrađen velik broj različitih fragmenata, a u vrtu je i česma napravljena od fragmenata nekadašnjeg zvonika splitske romaničke katedrale (Sl.1).
Na zapadnoj strani ograđenog prostora Manastirina, ispod čempresa, nalazi se grob don Frane Bulića, koji počiva u neposrednoj blizini salonitanskih mučenika. Natpis na sarkofagu koji je pokojnik dao uklesati za života, kada je napunio peto desetljeće, glasi: "Hoc in tumulo iacet Franciscus Bulić (...) sevans reverenda limina sanctorum." ("U ovome grobu počiva F. Bulić (...) čuvajući časne ostatke svetaca."). Sastavio ga je sam Bulić nadahnjujući se pojedinim salonitanskim kršćanskim nadgrobnim natpisima.
Tusculum danas uglavnom služi svrsi za koju ga je Bulić sagradio; u njegovu je prizemlju mala memorijalna zbirka koja podsjeća na uglednoga arheologa i na njegovo doba. Tu je djelomično obnovljen ugođaj s autentičnim namještajem iz Bulićeva vremena, a u vitrinama su neki od osobnih Bulićevih predmeta i spisa. Na katu su sobe u kojima borave i rade stručnjaci arheoloških ekipa koji obrađuju i istražuju solinske spomenike.
Predmeti koji su čišćeni nalaze se na južnoj strani Tusculuma, u vrtu zgrade. Kamena česma ima pravokutan tlocrt. Na prednjem dijelu nalazi se skulptura koja prikazuje muško lice čija su usta slavina. Okružena je četirima osmerokutnim stupovima bez ikakve dekoracije, a ona je sama jednostavno izrađena. I na bočnim dijelovima vlada slična jednostavnost gdje je sav ukras koncentriran na površini između polustupova (Sl. 2)
Prvi od dva spomenuta stola manji je i kružnog oblika. Oko njega se nalaze četiri kamene klupice (Sl. 3). Drugi stol je pravokutan, također s četiri klupice.
I česma i stolovi s klupicama izrađeni su od vapnenca. Kamena klupa, rađena dijelom u mramoru, a dijelom u vapnencu, jednostavnog je oblika i bez ukrasa (Sl. 4).

 

Opis zatečenog stanja
Česma je tijekom godina dobila prirodnu patinu, ali su na određenim mjestima primijećene tamne kore nastale zbog utjecaja atmosferilija. Osim što ga nagrđuju, te su tamne kore i štetne za kamen jer sadrže gips i druge topljive soli. Gips se, naime, kao vodotopljiva sol u vlažnim uvjetima otapa i ponovo kristalizira u porama kamena gdje bubri i stvara visoke hidratacijske i kristalizacijske tlakove pa razara strukturu kamena. Zbog toga inkrustacije s gipsom treba odstraniti, a ostatke gipsa kemijskim putem pretvoriti u netopljive i neštetne produkte. Druga vrsta oštećenja bili su grafiti na muškom licu (Sl. 5).
Na kamenim stolovima i klupama zatekli smo samo lišajeve. Lišajevi nastaju zbog velike vlage. Osim što nagrđuju spomenike, štetni su jer izdubljuju rupice u kamenu što dovodi do ljuštenja slojeva kamena. Njih je bilo potrebno ukloniti jer gusti splet rupica u kamenu može dostići dubinu od nekoliko milimetara do dubina koje se mjere u centimetrima, pa na tim mjestima kamen počinje brže propadati pod djelovanjem atmosferilija.
Na mramornoj klupi jedina onečišćenja bili su grafiti, pa je klupa očišćena iz estetskih razloga.

Konzervatorski zahvat i prijedlog zaštite

Kod svakog čišćenja bilo je potrebno poštivati izvornu kamenu površinu s patinom koja je nastala tijekom godina. Preventivna konsolidacija nije bila potrebna jer nisu postojali nestabilni dijelovi kamena, što je veoma utjecalo na metodu čišćenja koja je odabrana. Prije samog čišćenja podrobno je proučena površina, tekstura i boja kamena kako bi se odredila adekvatna metoda rada.
Prvo smo započeli rad na česmi uklanjanjem grafita. To je predstavljalo malo veći problem, koji je ovisio tome koliko su pore kamena bile upojne, pa smo iz tog razloga napravili sonde. Koristili smo aceton i nitro-razrjeđivač koji su se pokazali kao neadekvatna sredstva jer je površinski sloj omekšavao, a boja je dublje prodirala u pore kamena i širila se. Zbog toga smo se, a nakon sondiranja, odlučili na suho mikropjeskarenje koje se pokazalo uspješnim (Sl. 6).
Skidanje inkrustracija započeli smo najblažom tehnikom: ispiranjem vodom pod određenim tlakom pomoću miniwasha. Ta tehnika nije uspješno skidala tamne kore. Stoga smo napravili sonde mikropjeskarenjem koje se pokazalo uspješnim. Tamne kore na bočnim i na stražnjoj strani uklonili smo mokrim pjeskarenjem većim granulatom (Sl. 7).
Ovi su postupci zahtijevali najveći oprez, osobito na prednjoj, reljefnoj strani. S obzirom na činjenicu da se objekt nalazi na otvorenom i da su oštećenja bila uzrokovana uglavnom vlagom i vremenskim prilikama, bilo bi poželjno izvršiti hidrofobiranje. To je postupak koji čini površinu kamena vodoodbojnom tj. cilj mu je da ispuni pore kamena naslagama netopivima u vodi. U tu svrhu koriste se neka ulja, voskovi i metalni stearati. Među brojnim vrstama vodoodbijača koji se mogu naći na tržištu najcjenjeniji su silikonski vodoodbijači.
Kamene stolove i klupice čistili smo naizmjenice suhim i mokrim pjeskarenjem. Tu nije bilo većih opasnosti od oštećenja jer je površina jednostavno klesana, bez ukrasa i finih detalja (Sl. 8 i Sl. 9). Unatoč tome, pjeskarenju smo pristupili pažljivo, čisteći u smjeru u kojem je kamen klesan kako bi što manje oštetili površinu kamena. I u ovom slučaju bilo bi preporučljivo hidrofobiranje.

 

Zaključak

Ovdje su izvedeni primarni zahvati na konzervaciji kamenih spomenika. Općenito, sve kamene površine moraju prvo biti očišćene od životinjskih i biljnih nametnika, oslobođene štetnih soli, konsolidirane i učinjene vodoodbojnima. Sekundarni zahvat bilo bi natkrivanje spomenika u zimskom razdoblju, no s obzirom na naše podneblje to nije potrebno.
Objavljeno: 25. veljače 2004.

































































Lektorirano 27. listopada 2011. (M. G. Milić)


 

 

k040_001.jpgSl. 1 Vrt s južne strane Tusculuma

 

k040_002.jpg

Sl. 2 Prednji dio kamene česme s prikazom muškoga lica

k040_003.jpgSl. 3 Kameni stolić s četiri kamene klupe
k040_004.jpgSl. 4 Kamena klupa izrađena u mramoru i vapnencu

k040_005.jpgSl. 5 Grafiti na licu česme

k040_006.jpgSl. 6 Lice česme nakon čišćenja

k040_007.jpgSl. 7 Čišćenje mokrim mikropjeskarenjem bočnih i stražnje strane česme

k040_008.jpgSl. 8 Odstranjivanje lišajeva s kamenog stola

k040_009.jpgSl. 9 Suho mikropjeskarenje kamene klupice


 

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Practical and Helpful Tips: Sports
Many people have pretty stereotyped views of what gaming competitions may look like. Instead of propagating stereotypes of gamers wearing headsets, chugging energy drinks, it is better to tune in and watch some eSports competition to see why so many people are interested in this growing phenomenon. Already eSports competitions are extremely popular, and they are still growing in popularity. Those who are interested in learning more about eSports competition should start out by watching eSports events online. Online eSports TV channels, like DingIt TV, offer people a detailed view of this eSports competitions. To get started, all you have to do is search the Internet for more information about eSports.

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Tips On How To Buy The Ideal Scuba Mask.

It will be important to consider several decisions when it comes to buying a scuba mask. Ensure that you will be able to familiarize yourself with the mask first before you get to buy it. In that case you will be able to know which one suits you best. With that here are some of the given factors which will need to be considered in the given case.

Either buying or renting the masks is one of the problems that the divers have to deal with in this case. In diving you will find that owning your equipment will be the ideal way to do it that will be as well as the mask. That way you will be able to get the one that fits you well and suits your style and preferences. In many cases you will find that when dealing with the rentals, they will not always come in the way you would want to have you like. The only time the rentals would come in handy is when you find that a person has forgotten to carry theirs and they need to go for diving.

The market will give you a variety of scuba masks as well as the swim masks. You will find that they are made differently and the two cannot be confused with each other. You will find that the scuba masks are made in such a way that they are able to sustain the pressure that comes with diving unlike the swim masks.

You will find that they will tend to have a very strong tempered glass for that purpose which is not the case with the swim mask. It will be important to consider a case where the air mask will be meant for the balancing of the pressure under the water. This are very important features that any diver should look for in a scuba mask which will not be the case found in a swim mask.

Consider how well the mask will be able to fit in this case. When you get the skirt wrapped around you then you will find that there are no gaps available in such a case. When you get an ill fitting mask you will find that the water will be able to flow inside very easily which can lead to choking and drowning in other cases. That is why you have to look for a store that they give the fitting measurements for their customers before the buy. When you look at the mask in this case you will find that the pool is a good start to ensure that it will be right to use in large water bodies.

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The Advantages Of A Hoseless Dive Computer

A hoseless dive PC is a remote and air facilitated compass which is planned for bouncing while considering an extension or lessening in pneumatic drive as an individual is diving. There are a few focal points that are joined by the utilization of a hoseless plunge PC, for example, the PC permits following of the decompression status as it anticipates decompression infection in jumpers this is on account of it tracks the nitrogen levels in the body of a jumper by controlling the measure of nitrogen admission and out take in the jumper as it is critical to likewise guarantee that the jumper gets great quality air as they are making a plunge the ocean.

It also allows an individual to spend more time under water this is because it has a maximum number of feet that the diver can be able to dive deep and it also limits the period of time the individual will be in the water as this often helps prevent decompression sickness in an individual.

Bounce PCs also help in giving accurate time and significance recordings when appeared differently in relation to the conventional strategy for figuring the significance and time that the jumper spends in water as it was much of the time off course, yet the usage of the dive PC progresses exact estimations and meanwhile it in like manner ensures that there are no more dive table bumbles this is in light of the fact that hop PCs actually plays out each one of the considers for the decompression status of the jumper and besides register the decompression time and the rooftop significance this is just in case an individual encounters a decompression.

The dive computer also has accent rate indicators which often indicate to the diver the rate at which they are supposed to ascend this is because divers are taught on how to ascend slowly so that they do not exceed their set maximum ascend rate this is because if they do so they may suffer from decompression sickness and it also gives the diver a warning in the event where they are ascending at a fast rate than they are supposed to.

Hoseless bounce PCs are in like manner known to consider a decrease in weight when an individual ascensions to shallow profundities and thusly an individual can have the ability to know the rate at which they ought to ascend on to the surface of the water and this is frequently seen as more exact when stood out from standard tables which are thought to be less correct.

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