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Home IZ STRUKE Konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat na zidnim slikarijama Celestina Mate Medovića u kapeli Sv. Spasa

Konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat na zidnim slikarijama Celestina Mate Medovića u kapeli Sv. Spasa

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Dr. sc. Branko MATULIĆ, konzervator-restaurator savjetnik (Hrvatski restauratorski zavod - Restauratorski odjel u Splitu, v. d. pročelnika Odsjeka za konzervatorstvo-restauratorstvo Umjetničke akademije)
Tonči BOROVAC, viši konzervator-restaurator (Hrvatski restauratorski zavod - Restauratorski odjel u Splitu)

S A Ž E T A K
Celestin Mate Medović ukrasio je godine 1907. kapelu sv. Spasa na groblju u Kuni Pelješkoj zidnim slikarijama. U literaturi iz četrdesetih godina dvadesetog stoljeća navodi se da su slikarije gotovo potpuno uništene. U članku se opisuje zahtjevan konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat koji je još uvijek u tijeku.


U kapeli sv. Spasa na groblju u Kuni na Pelješcu, tijekom 1906. i 1907. godine slikar Celestin Mato Medović oslikao je svod apside, trijumfalni luk, svod broda crkve i gornji dio unutrašnjosti pročelnog zida. Radi se o velikim kompozicijama s brojnim ljudskim i životinjskim likovima, obrubljenima florealnim i geometrijskim trakama. Sve ostale površine unutrašnjosti zidova ožbukane su žbukom spravljenom s dodatkom mramornoga brašna, a marmorizacija je izvedena u kombiniranoj tehnici stucco lustro i fresco secco.

Zbog oštećenog krovišta vlaga se godinama akumulirala u ziđu svoda. Uzrokovala je brojna oštećenja, poput gubitka vezivnog svojstva pigmenata, a u skladu s tim i njihovu pulverizaciju, alteraciju, promjenu kemijskog sastava pigmenta i veziva, što je mjestimično dovelo do potpunog gubitka bojenog sloja i pozlate. Oštećenja su bila tolika da se u katalogu Medovićeve zagrebačke izložbe, izdanom davne 1939. godine, ove slikarije spominju, ali s napomenom da su nepopravljivo oštećene i skoro potpuno uništene. I u knjizi “Medović u rodnome kraju”, Cvito Fisković piše o ovim slikarijama kao o nepopravljivo oštećenima. Da su oštećenja zaista bila na granici uništenja svjedoči i to, da je zbog nerazumljivosti likovne kompozicije ugledni autor ove knjige pogriješio navodeći kako se na pročelnom zidu nalazi prikaz Svetoga Trojstva umjesto prikaza silaska Duha Svetoga.

U takvim okolnostima, kada za ove slikarije već više od 50 godina vrijedi tvrdnja da su potpuno uništene, članovi KUD-a “Celestin Mato Medović” pokreću akciju revitalizacije kapele na groblju, napose zidnog oslika u unutrašnjosti. Uz potporu Ministarstva kulture i nadzor Konzervatorskog odjela u Dubrovniku, započeo je dugotrajan proces obnove čitavog oslikanog interijera, na kojoj su radili restauratori Branko Matulić, Tonči Borovac, Marin Barišić i Ivana Muratti.

Nakon izrade elaborata zaštite zidnih slika te saniranja oštećenja krova, bilo je moguće pristupiti neposrednim zaštitnim zahvatima u unutrašnjosti crkve. Najprije je izvršena tzv. predkonsolidacija, kojom se svi oni dijelovi kojima prijeti oštećenje već pri samom dodiru osiguravaju i učvršćuju, kako bi se mogli izvoditi svi ostali zaštitni zahvati bez opasnosti od izazivanja novih oštećenja. Ovo se osobito odnosi na izrazito uznapredovali stupanj pulverizacije pigmenata bojanog sloja preostalih dijelova zidnih slikarija. S obzirom na podlogu i stanje slikarije, izvršeno je dvokratno premazivanje 5-postotnom otopinom PVA-disperzije u destiliranoj vodi mekim kistovima. Premazivanje je odabrano umjesto prskanja zbog veće mogućnosti kontrole i pregleda stanja pojedinih područja bojenog sloja, a i zbog mogućnosti blagog pritiska na bojeni sloj, čime se on na neki način sljubljuje s podlogom. Već tijekom ovog zahvata “izronilo” je mnoštvo dotad uvelike ili potpuno neraspoznatljivih detalja likovne kompozicije.

Potom su se sva oštećenja podloge osigurala žbukom, dovoljno čvrstom kako bi sigurno i trajno čuvala i sidrila rubove te time osnažila čitavu površinu slikarije. Ta žbuka mora istovremeno biti dovoljno meka da bi se mogla bez posljedica relativno lako i brzo odstraniti prilikom mogućih zaštitnih zahvata u budućnosti. Korišten je kvarcni pijesak i gašeno vapno uz dodatak do 5-postotne otopine PVA-disperzije.

Manje je dijelove zidnih slikarija bilo potrebno injektirati tako da što bolje svojom poleđinom prionu uza zid. Odabir smjese ovisio je o ponašanju žbuke pri injektiranju. U ovom slučaju to je bilo vapneno mlijeko obogaćeno već spomenutim odgovarajućim aditivima za brže popunjavanje i skrućivanje. Nakon što su se utvrdile šupljine ispod površine žbuke te njihov opseg i smjer pružanja, izbušene su odgovarajuće rupe za injektiranje, a potom je slijedilo ubrizgavanje pripremljene smjese pod tlakom. Naravno, pri tome je potreban veliki oprez zbog opasnosti od prenaprezanja žbuke. Na završetku injektiranja, rupe su zapunjene smjesom koja sastavom odgovara sastavu izvorne žbuke. Također je izvršeno popunjavanje lakuna, vena i kapilarnih površinskih oštećenja. O njihovu dobrom ispunjavanju ovisit će daljnje stanje slikarije. Time će se spriječiti utjecaj površinske kondenzirane vlage i zaustaviti površinsko osipanje bojenog sloja. Izvodi se istim sredstvom korištenim pri obrubljivanju. Postupkom impregnacije žbuke zaustavljaju se moguće daljnje štetne kemijske reakcije, a istovremeno se omogućava duboko prodiranje u žbuku, brzo sušenje, očvršćivanje podloge, te dobra veza sa završnim premazom. Na taj se način stvara kompaktnost slojeva, konzistentnost žbuke i svježina površine.

Kod čišćenja bojanog sloja kombinirano je mehaničko i kemijsko čišćenje. Mehanički su se odstranila onečišćenja u vidu skrame, madeža, ljuski i isoljenih dijelova. Primjena kemijskog čišćenja odnosila se na one dijelove slikarije na kojima se nataložila mrena i prljavština, osobito od izmeta insekata, a koja zamagljuje crtež i mijenja izvorne kolorističke odnose. Nakon provedenog čišćenja bojenog sloja, uz pomoć tlačnog raspršivača izvršeno je postavljanje zaštitnog sloja 5-postotne otopine Paraloida. Time se izjednačila upojnost i konzistencija površine bojenog sloja, čime se ujedno stabilizira pigment i štiti cijelo lica slikarije od vanjskih utjecaja (vlage, prašine, razlike u temperaturi, svjetla i sl.).

Sve površine slikarije su premazane sredstvima za zaštitu i dezinfekciju (raskuživanje) od raznih mikroorganizama koji uzrokuju plijesan, gljivične kolonije i slično. Upotrebljeni su biocidi i fungicidi otopljeni u vodenim emulzijama, no zbog stalne i velike količine muha i drugih insekata unutar grobne kapele bilo je nužno obaviti i kompletnu dezinsekciju interijera.

U nastavku zaštitnih zahvata odabrane su metoda i tehnike daljnjih restauratorskih zahvata, konsolidiranja i obnove oštećenih i nedostajućih dijelova bojenih i pozlaćenih slojeva. Tada su uočeni mnogo veći tragovi pozlate, koji su obuhvaćali i veliki dio natpisa u apsidi. Uočen je i složeni geometrijski ukras na trijumfalnom luku, sačuvan tek u tragovima, ali dovoljno da se može rekonstruirati. Zaključeno je da se gotovo nepovratno uništeni dijelovi oslika u apsidi mogu rekonstruirati strpljivom i pomnom opservacijom zatečenog stanja, kao i neki dijelovi na pročelnom zidu za koje se smatralo kao ih je nemoguće rekonstruirati. Stoga je bilo nužno napraviti izmjene u planiranom redosljedu zahvata i prilagoditi tijek restauracije novim saznanjima stečenima tijekom samih zaštitnih zahvata.
Sanirani su svi oštećeni i nedostajući dijelovi žbukane podloge kao nositelja bojenog sloja. Pripravljeni kitovi na bazi vapna i mramornoga brašna nanosili su se vrlo pažljivo slikarskim špatulicama, pazeći uvijek na razinu nanesenog i izvornog sloja. O kvaliteti izvedbe ovog dijela ovisit će konačni efekt cjelokupnog restauratorskog zahvata. Pri nanošenju podložnog kita slikarskim špatulicama različitih profilacija, površina se ne može idealno stopiti s izvornom razinom bojenog sloja, te je potrebno njegovo brušenje. Brušenje je potrebno i zato što je novu podlogu nužno fino nahrapaviti radi što boljeg nalijeganja predlaka. Prije nanošenja predlaka, ove površine su impregnirane radi izjednačavanja upojne moći s izvornom žbukom. Predlak je nanesen kako bi se finim filmom izjednačile izvorne i novopostavljene površine. Ujedno služi i kao podloga za retuširanje. Kao predlak korištena je 2,5-postotna otopina Paraloida u toluenu. Nanošen je u dva tanka sloja, pri čemu se nastojalo izbjeći lijepljenje prašine.

Nakon saniranja svih oštećenja na licu slikarije pristupilo se retušu i pozlati, odnosno rekonstruktivnim zahvatima na likovnoj kompoziciji ovog složenog slikarskog djela. Lokalni ton se nanosi kako bi se, u kolorističkom smislu, izjednačile površine originalnih oslika i neoslikanih, kitiranih površina. Odabire se najniži ton na tonskoj skali izvornika, kako bi se što diskretnije nanosili daljnji viši tonovi u procesu rekonstruiranja nedostajućih elemenata u kompoziciji. Lokalni ton priređuje se od pažljivo odabranih pigmenata s odgovarajućim specijalnim vezivima na bazi akrilata. Postavljeni ton mora biti kompaktan i usklađen s cjelinom oslikanih površina. Tek nakon što se naneseni lokalni ton dobro osuši može se prijeći na retuširanje.

Pristupajući u ovom slučaju vrlo zahtjevnoj fazi zaštitnih zahvata, stekao se detaljan uvid u ikonografski ciklus prikazan na oslicima, uz prethodno poznavanje ikonografskih zakonitosti u sličnim kompozicijama različitih slikara i slikarskih škola. Na osnovi detaljnih analiza utvrđeno je da se može rekonstruirati mnogo više likovne kompozicije nego je to u početku bilo planirano. Stoga je odlučeno da će se rekonstruirati i retuširati svi florealni i geometrijski dekorativni motivi, a kojih je uistinu mnogo. Na taj način će se dobiti čvrsto definirani okvir za retuš velikih figuralnih kompozicija. Svakako treba napomenuti kako su primijećeni raniji retuši na velikoj florealnoj borduri koja uokviruje veliku svodnu kompoziciju. U apsidi su bili obnovljeni gotovo potpuno uništeni likovi anđela i središnjeg medaljona s janjetom. Tu je obnovljena i pozlata, pri čemu se koristilo mineralno zlato. Pozlate također ima mnogo više nego se pretpostavljalo, pogotovo na natpisima i monogramima u apsidi. Nažalost, na likovnoj kompoziciji svoda crkve središnji lik Krista potpuno je uništen, ali se u velikom postotku mogu obnoviti brojni likovi anđela, kao i dobar dio skupina likova koji predstavljaju četiri kontinenta. Sa sigurnošću se može potvrditi da se na pročelnom zidu nalazi prikaz silaska Duha Svetoga, koji će se u velikoj mjeri obnoviti. Veliki problem predstavlja dekorativni ukras na trijumfalnom luku koji je zbog preslika detektiran tek u ovoj kampanji. I njega je moguće obnoviti na osnovi neznatno sačuvanih izvornih uzoraka dekoracije. Gotovo je suvišno spominjati kako su sve faze zaštitnih zahvata popraćene fotodokumentacijom.

Svi zahvati su u velikoj mjeri provedeni, ali zbog novih nalaza i činjenice da oni zahtijevaju niz novih, neplaniranih rekonstruktivnih zahvata, radovi će se nastaviti kako bi se započeti posao dovršio. To se posebno odnosi na niz korektivnih zahvata koje valja provesti nakon planiranog postavljanja rasvjete u crkvi i uklanjanja naknadno postavljenog drvenog pjevališta koje narušava cjelovitost Medovićeve slikarije.

 

 

Objavljeno: 25. veljače 2004.

 

Lektorirano 24. listopada 2011. (M. Gojčeta Milić)


Sl.1 Zatečeno stanje slikarije
na zapadnom dijelu svoda


Sl. 2 Zatečeno stanje slikarije
na sjeverozapadnom
dijelu svoda


Sl. 3 Zatečeno stanje
slikarije u apsidi


Sl. 4 Zatečeno stanje
slikarije na jugoistočnom
dijelu svoda


Sl. 5 Zatečeno stanje slikarije na trijumfalnom luku


Sl. 6 Sondažno čišćenje
slikarije u apsidi


Sl. 7 Fiksiranje bojenog sloja slikarije na zapadnom zidu


Sl. 8 Fiksiranje bojenog sloja slikarije na zapadnom zidu


Sl. 9 Saniranje oštećenja na žbukanom sloju na
jugoistočnom dijelu svoda


Sl. 10 Saniranje oštećenja na žbukanom sloju na sjeveroistočnom dijelu svoda


Sl. 11 Rekonstrukcija bojenog sloja u apsidi


Sl. 12. Rekonstrukcija bojenog sloja na sjevernom
dijelu svoda







Sl. 13 Rekonstrukcija bojenog
sloja u apsidi

Sl. 14 Rekonstrukcija bojenog
sloja na zapadnom zidu

Sl. 15 Rekonstrukcija pozlate u apsidi

Sl. 16 Pogled na apsidu nakon djelomično provedene
rekonstrukcije bojenog sloja
 
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How I Achieved Maximum Success with Diving

Tips On How To Buy The Ideal Scuba Mask.

It will be important to consider several decisions when it comes to buying a scuba mask. Ensure that you will be able to familiarize yourself with the mask first before you get to buy it. In that case you will be able to know which one suits you best. With that here are some of the given factors which will need to be considered in the given case.

Either buying or renting the masks is one of the problems that the divers have to deal with in this case. In diving you will find that owning your equipment will be the ideal way to do it that will be as well as the mask. That way you will be able to get the one that fits you well and suits your style and preferences. In many cases you will find that when dealing with the rentals, they will not always come in the way you would want to have you like. The only time the rentals would come in handy is when you find that a person has forgotten to carry theirs and they need to go for diving.

The market will give you a variety of scuba masks as well as the swim masks. You will find that they are made differently and the two cannot be confused with each other. You will find that the scuba masks are made in such a way that they are able to sustain the pressure that comes with diving unlike the swim masks.

You will find that they will tend to have a very strong tempered glass for that purpose which is not the case with the swim mask. It will be important to consider a case where the air mask will be meant for the balancing of the pressure under the water. This are very important features that any diver should look for in a scuba mask which will not be the case found in a swim mask.

Consider how well the mask will be able to fit in this case. When you get the skirt wrapped around you then you will find that there are no gaps available in such a case. When you get an ill fitting mask you will find that the water will be able to flow inside very easily which can lead to choking and drowning in other cases. That is why you have to look for a store that they give the fitting measurements for their customers before the buy. When you look at the mask in this case you will find that the pool is a good start to ensure that it will be right to use in large water bodies.

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Feb 20, 2017

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The Advantages Of A Hoseless Dive Computer

A hoseless dive PC is a remote and air facilitated compass which is planned for bouncing while considering an extension or lessening in pneumatic drive as an individual is diving. There are a few focal points that are joined by the utilization of a hoseless plunge PC, for example, the PC permits following of the decompression status as it anticipates decompression infection in jumpers this is on account of it tracks the nitrogen levels in the body of a jumper by controlling the measure of nitrogen admission and out take in the jumper as it is critical to likewise guarantee that the jumper gets great quality air as they are making a plunge the ocean.

It also allows an individual to spend more time under water this is because it has a maximum number of feet that the diver can be able to dive deep and it also limits the period of time the individual will be in the water as this often helps prevent decompression sickness in an individual.

Bounce PCs also help in giving accurate time and significance recordings when appeared differently in relation to the conventional strategy for figuring the significance and time that the jumper spends in water as it was much of the time off course, yet the usage of the dive PC progresses exact estimations and meanwhile it in like manner ensures that there are no more dive table bumbles this is in light of the fact that hop PCs actually plays out each one of the considers for the decompression status of the jumper and besides register the decompression time and the rooftop significance this is just in case an individual encounters a decompression.

The dive computer also has accent rate indicators which often indicate to the diver the rate at which they are supposed to ascend this is because divers are taught on how to ascend slowly so that they do not exceed their set maximum ascend rate this is because if they do so they may suffer from decompression sickness and it also gives the diver a warning in the event where they are ascending at a fast rate than they are supposed to.

Hoseless bounce PCs are in like manner known to consider a decrease in weight when an individual ascensions to shallow profundities and thusly an individual can have the ability to know the rate at which they ought to ascend on to the surface of the water and this is frequently seen as more exact when stood out from standard tables which are thought to be less correct.

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