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Home IZ STRUKE Konzervatorsko-restauratorski radovi na Peristilu

Konzervatorsko-restauratorski radovi na Peristilu

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2peristil
Mr. sc. Goran NIKŠIĆ
Sagita Mirjam SUNARA

S A Ž E T A K
Na početku trećeg tisućljeća započinje projekt cjelovite obnove i zaštite Peristila, najreprezentativnijeg i najbolje očuvanog dijela splitske carske palače, simbola i srca grada. U njemu su se nagomilali povijesni slojevi, ali i problemi vezani uz konzervaciju graditeljske baštine. Prvom fazom konzervatorsko-restauratorskih radova obuhvaćen je sjeverni dio istočne kolonade: arhitektonska cjelina ugaonog pilona s pilastrom i prva dva stupa kolonade, gledano od kapele sv. Roka. Radovi na ovom dijelu završeni su u listopadu 2005. godine, a sljedeća će faza obuhvatiti južni dio zapadne kolonade s pročeljem palače Skočibučić-Lukaris u koju će se smjestiti budući Muzej sakralne umjetnosti.

KONZERVATORSKI ASPEKTI OBNOVE PERISTILA
Mr. sc. Goran Nikšić, arhitekt-konzervator
Ministarstvo kulture - Konzervatorski odjel u Splitu

Peristil nije samo glavni trg, najreprezentativniji i najbolje očuvan dio splitske carske palače, već i simbol i srce grada, u kojemu su se nagomilali povijesni slojevi, ali i problemi vezani uz konzervaciju graditeljske baštine. Sintagma grada koji se iznjedrio iz Palače upravo je na ovome mjestu najjasnija. Preplitanje svih graditeljskih slojeva, od antike do 20. stoljeća, ponekad i u izvrnutom poretku, gdje su se arhitektonski elementi starijeg stila našli iznad onih kasnijih, rječito govori o gustom povijesnom tkanju u kojemu je na skučenom prostoru, vjekovima sapet zidinama Palače, rastao Grad.

Nakon što su se stoljećima kuće, palače, crkve i kapele i skale interpolirale među rimske kolonade, nakon što su neke od tih gradnji uklonjene u 19. i 20. stoljeću, poneke obnovljene, neke ponovo sagrađene iz temelja, a poneke ostavljene da propadaju, nakon što je i pod trga doživio transformaciju, na početku trećeg tisućljeća započela je sustavna obnova Peristila kao cjeline.

Potaknut inicijalnim sredstvima privatne donacije iz inozemstva, uz dodatnu financijsku potporu Grada i Ministarstva kulture, zahvat koji je u početku zamišljen samo kao čišćenje antičke kamene arhitekture, prerastao je u složen konzervatorski i restauratorski posao koji će obuhvatiti sve segmente, od sanacije temelja i konstrukcije, preko čišćenja i konzervacije kamena, žbuke i ostalih materijala do krajnje prezentacije tog slojevitog spomenika.

Na inicijativu Službe za staru gradsku jezgru Gradskog poglavarstva Splita 2002. godine sastavljeno je stručno povjerenstvo koje je postavilo okvire konzervatorsko-restauratorskog zahvata. Pored predstavnika splitskog Konzervatorskog odjela Ministarstva kulture, u radu povjerenstva sudjelovali su stručnjaci firentinskog restauratorskog instituta (Opificio delle Pietre Dure), kao i članovi Hrvatskog restauratorskog zavoda, koji je 2003. godine započeo opsežne pripreme konzervatorsko-restauratorskog zahvata.

Za prvu fazu radova određen je sjeverni dio istočne kolonade Peristila, gdje je postavljena radna skela. Zatim je načinjena detaljna arhitektonska i fotografska dokumentacija postojećeg stanja i izvršena ispitivanja nedestruktivnim metodama (termografija, magnetometrija, laboratorijska ispitivanja). Na temelju dobivenih podataka određena je metodologija zahvata. Osim što se kod nas rijetko susreće tako temeljito pripremljen konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvat, radovi na Peristilu, koji su se odvijali kroz 2004. i 2005. godinu, specifični su i po tome što je to jedan od prvih projekata gdje se kao osnovni postupak čišćenja kamena koristi najsuvremenija metoda laserskog čišćenja. Treba istaknuti da je nakon izrazito pozitivnog iskustva na Peristilu (uz prethodne testove na Dioklecijanovom mauzoleju, Jupiterovom hramu i Zlatnim vratima) laser ušao u široku upotrebu u domaćoj konzervatorsko-restauratorskoj praksi. Nadamo se da će se uskoro ta – daleko najsigurnija i najpreciznija – metoda osim na kamenu početi kod nas koristiti i za čišćenje polikromije, metala, drva, papira i ostalih materijala, kao što je to već uobičajeno u svijetu.

Sa šireg konzervatorskog gledišta, prva faza radova na Peristilu postigla je višestruki efekt: osim što je na dijelu antičke kolonade uklonjena stoljetna nečistoća koja je nagrđivala i oštećivala kamen, javnost je senzibilizirana za probleme koje je dosad razmatrao samo uski krug stručnjaka. Tome je pridonijela i izložba koju je priredio Restauratorski zavod Hrvatske, ali i medijska pozornost koja je utjecala na uklanjanje ili barem ublažavanje sadržaja koji su nagrđivali ili čak fizički oštećivali taj najznačajniji povijesni prostor. Danas je Peristil oslobođen neprimjerenih ugostiteljskih stolova i suncobrana, a scenografija kazališnih predstava, koja je usred turističke sezone zaklanjala protiron i onemogućavala normalno kretanje trgom, svedena na minimum. Nakon dugogodišnjih rasprava, konačno je postignut opći konsenzus da se za velike predstave pronađe druga lokacija.
Poslije niza godina zapuštenosti i nebrige, ovi prvi uspješni koraci daju nadu da će se u dogledno vrijeme dovršiti rad na cjelovitoj konzervaciji i prezentaciji Peristila, najvažnijeg dijela Dioklecijanove palače i jednog od najvrjednijih ambijenata nacionalne graditeljske baštine.

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KONZERVATORSKO-RESTAURATORSKI RADOVI NA PERISTILU
Sagita Mirjam Sunara, konzervator-restaurator
Hrvatski restauratorski zavod – Restauratorski odjel u Splitu, Odsjek za kamenu plastiku


Izrada dokumentacije
Izvođenju konzervatorsko-restauratorskih radova na Peristilu prethodila je izrada opsežne arhitektonske, pisane i fotodokumentacije kojom je obuhvaćena arhitektonska cjelina pilona s pilastrom i prva dva stupa istočne kolonade, gledano od kapele sv. Roka. Na temelju arhitektonskog snimka postojećeg stanja izrađen je grafički prikaz vrsta i stupnja oštećenja kamena, te su evidentirane sve ranije intervencije, odnosno restauratorski i rekonstruktivni zahvati na izvornoj antičkoj građi. Arhitektonski snimci postali su podloga za unošenje podataka o konzervatorsko-restauratorskim radovima, a u budućnosti će na temelju njih biti moguće pratiti stanje i eventualna nova oštećenja na ovom dijelu Peristila.

Probe materijala i tehnika; ispitivanja
Prvom fazom radova obuhvaćene su probe odabranih metoda i materijala na različitim površinama. Izvršena su pokusna uklanjanja organskih onečišćenja, uklanjanja crne kore, odsoljavanja kamena, probe površinske zaštite i učvršćivanja kamena, sanacije pukotina i njihovog učvršćivanja, te rekonstrukcije nedostajućih dijelova i fugiranja sljubnica. Ovim su radovima prethodila dijagnostička ispitivanja i istražni radovi na konstrukciji objekta, te ispitivanja materijala i stanja površine kamenih elemenata. U tu je svrhu primijenjen čitav niz neinvazivnih tehnika ispitivanja i instrumentnih metoda analize: termografija, ultrazvuk, magnetoskopija, mjerenje potencijala korozije, mjerenje poroznosti kamena, mineraloško-petrografska analiza, rendgenska difrakcijska analiza, spektrometrija emisije rendgenskih zraka potaknuta protonima, FTIR-spektroskopija, mikroskopija, kemijske analize…

Uzroci propadanja kamena Peristila
Na kamenu Peristila evidentirano je nekoliko glavnih vrsta oštećenja i onečišćenja: biološka onečišćenja, površinske naslage (tamne kore), štetne soli, isprana područja i strukturna oštećenja.
Više biljke svojim korijenjem fizički razaraju kamen. Mikroorganizmi (lišajevi, bakterije, plijesni) metaboličkim procesima oslobađaju anorganske i organske kiseline uzrokujući kemijsku destrukciju kamena. Crne kore predstavljaju jedan od najekstremnijih oblika onečišćenja. Uvelike nagrđuju izgled građevine te prikrivaju propadanje koje je u tijeku, a čiji obujam postaje vidljiv tek kada dođe do lomljenja kamene strukture. Anorganska onečišćenja se javljaju na površinama gdje izravno ne dospijeva kiša, a njihova crna boja obično potječe od čestica čađe, u ovom slučaju od čađe nastale izgaranjem ugljena u domaćinstvima i industrijskim postrojenjima. Svoj doprinos stvaranju crnih kora na kamenu dala je i cementna industrija u blizini Splita, koja tijekom 125 godina svog postojanja kontinuirano onečišćuje zrak taložnom tvari. Na problem crnih kora izravno se nadovezuje problem štetnih (topljivih) soli koje su u njima prisutne. Razlistavanje i ljuskanje kamena prekrivenog korom posljedica je rasta kristala soli u porama kamena neposredno ispod njegove površine. Kiša ima višestruko negativno djelovanje na kamen: udari kišnih kapi mehanički izbijaju slabije vezane čestice iz površine kamena i snižavaju njegov reljef, a kako je kišnica obično blago kisela, ona i kemijski razgrađuje kamen. Kamene površine izložene kiši su erodirane, a prisutna su i specifična rupičasta oštećenja (šupljine) koja potječu od fosilnih organizama koji su gradili kamen i koji su uslijed erozije i kapilarne vlage ispali. Razne intervencije poduzimane unutar kolonada Peristila tijekom stoljeća, prije svega interpolacije sakralnih i stambenih objekata, uzrokovale su brojna oštećenja kamene strukture i izazvale poremećaje u statici građevine. Mehanička oštećenja na kamenu Peristila različite su prirode: od raspuknuća stupova nastalih prilikom uklanjanja pročelnog zida kuće u kojoj se nalazila kavana ‘Al Tempio’, do oštećenja nastalih u bombardiranjima u Drugom svjetskom ratu (udarci gelera uzrokovali su rasprskavanje i odvaljivanje površinskih slojeva kamena na mjestima udara). Željezni predmeti sidreni u kamen povećavanjem volumena uslijed korozije također su uzrokovali brojna oštećenja, a kada je 60-ih godina XX. stoljeća Peristil postao pozornica Splitskog festivala, kablovi električne opreme počeli su se postavljati oko stupova i vješati o kapitele što je također ostavilo tragove – odlomljene volute i dijelove akantusovih listova na kapitelima i sl.

Uklanjanje metala, cementa i organskih onečišćenja
Svi zatečeni željezni predmeti (kopče, klinovi, vijci, čavli, nosači električnih instalacija...) uklonjeni su iz kamene strukture. Uz pomoć ručnog klesarskog alata (dlijeto, špica) i, na osjetljivijim površinama, skalpelom, uklonjeno je oko 450 m starog cementnog morta u sljubnicama između kamenih blokova. Mehanički su uklonjene i neadekvatne stare cementne zapune (tašeli), kao i cementni pokrov ("kapa") na gornjoj plohi vijenca, koji se u rubnim dijelovima odvojio od kamena pa je kroz nastale pukotine voda prodirala u strukturu ziđa ispirući vezivo između kamenih blokova, te, erodirajući donje dijelove kolonade na mjestima gdje je kroz šupljine između blokova, izbijala van. Voda je uzrokovala i migraciju soli te koroziju metalnih spojnih elemenata. Površine na kojima su bila prisutna biološka onečišćenja tretirane su biocidnim sredstvom. Ostatci mikroorganizama zatim su uklanjani vodenom parom pod tlakom (steamer).

Čišćenje tamnih naslaga
Na površini kamena Peristila bile su prisutne tri vrste površinskih naslaga: karbonatske kore, sivkastosmeđe kore i debele sulfatne kore bogate česticama ugljika, crne boje. Ispod crnih kora uglavnom se nalazila dobro očuvana žućkasta oksalatna patina. Patina predstavlja tanak prekristalizirani površinski sloj kamena, tj. sloj koji ide od površine kamena prema njegovoj unutrašnjosti. Minerali koji tvore patine su kalcijevi oksalati i oni štite površinu kamena. Tamne su pak naslage nataložene na površini kamena i sadrže štetni kalcijev sulfat, pa ih treba ukloniti. Tamne naslage su čišćene laserima. Laser, kao najsuvremenija metoda čišćenja kamena, omogućuje uklanjanje nepoželjnih slojeva, najčešće sulfatacija, uz istovremeno čuvanje oksalatnih filmova – patine – koji se nalaze između supstrata i naslaga. Princip rada lasera je u osnovi vrlo jednostavan: laserske zrake određene frekvencije reagiraju na tamnu boju prljavštine, u njoj stvaraju rezonanciju i pretvaraju je u sitnu prašinu. Dok su na kamenu prisutne nečistoće, svjetlost se apsorbira, a čišćenje traje. Kada je nečistoća uklonjena, svjetlost se reflektira o čistu površinu kamena, a čišćenje se zaustavlja. Na mjestima gdje su crne kore bile izrazito debele (čak po nekoliko centimetara!), predradnja laserskom čišćenju bilo je mehaničko stanjivanje kora finim klesarskim alatima, zubarskim alatkama i skalpelima. Zbog rizika od oštećenja kamena, prethodno mehaničko čišćenje nije bilo moguće na mjestima gdje su se kore formirale na izrazito erodiranoj površini, oko strukturnih oštećenja kamena i tamo gdje se kamen ljuskasto osipao zbog prisutnih štetnih topljivih soli.

Nejednolikosti, nedovršenosti i tragovi alata
Izvođenje konzervatorsko-restauratorskih radova omogućilo je da se iz neposredne blizine upozna sva vještina i umijeće klesara koji su gradili Peristil, ali i da se uoče sve neujednačenosti i nedovršenosti klesarskih radova, posebno brojne na dekorativnim elementima građevine. Istraživači Palače već su davno zapazili da su kamenoklesarski radovi u carskom zdanju ostali na više mjesta neusklađeni, nedovršeni ili prekinuti tijekom obrade. Na Peristilu su tako zabilježeni nejednaki promjeri i visine stupova, razlike u razmacima između stupova, u visinama kapitela i obliku zubaca (denti) na vijencu. Profili baza stupova obrađeni su samo s prednje strane, prema trgu, dok su otraga samo grubo oblikovani. Akantusovi listovi na korintskim kapitelima različitih su oblika, a i kapiteli sami razlikuju se po visini i obujmu. Jugoistočna strana kapitela drugog stupa tek je grubo klesarski obrađena, dok modiljoni na najsjevernijem bloku vijenca uopće nisu isklesani. Ovi detalji svjedoče o velikoj brzini kojom se moralo graditi kako bi Palača u određeno vrijeme bila završena. Rok za izgradnju Palače bio je samo deset godina!
Nakon uklanjanja crnih kora i drugih tamnih površinskih presvlaka postali su vidljivi tragovi alata kojima su antički klesari prije 1700 godina oblikovali kolonade Peristila. Velike ravne površine kamenih blokova i tijela stupova obrađeni su finom martelinom. U uglovima je zbog nepristupačnosti korištena gradina (dlijeto sa zubima). Na gornjoj plohi vijenca vidljivi su tragovi piketa i špice. Kameni blokovi s gornje strane nisu pravilno obrađeni, pa su neki njihovi dijelovi ispupčeni, odnosno udubljeni i do 15-20 cm u odnosu na prosječnu ravninu vijenca. Na onim dijelovima koji nisu bili toliko dostupni oku, primjerice ispod voluta kapitela, sačuvani su ponegdje tragovi grubljeg dlijeta i špice, no ove su se površina uglavnom dorađivale gradinom šiljastog zuba. Denti i dekorativni elementi između modiljona izvedeni su gradinom. Gradina ravnog zuba korištena je za oblikovanje akantusovih listova kapitela i, najvjerojatnije, za klesanje ornamenata modiljona i kimationa vijenca, no završna se dorada ovih finih dekoracija u pravilu izvodila ravnim dlijetima.

Fugiranje, izrada okapnica i injektiranje
Prostori između kamenih blokova i lakune izvornih sljubnica fugirani su akrilno-vapnenom žbukom. Nove su sljubnice upuštene u odnosu na visinu kamena. Za izradu okapnica, odnosno žbukanje gornjih dijelova istaka i kapitela radi osiguravanja primjerenog pada za otjecanje oborinskih voda, korišten je umjetni kamen. Kao priprema za injektiranje veziva na bazi vapna, Calx Romana, izvedeno je bušenje rupa u sljubnicama između kamenih blokova. Rupe su nakon injektiranja zapunjene akrilno-vapnenom žbukom.

Učvršćivanje nestabilnih dijelova, izrada rekonstrukcija
Na mjestima gdje mu je prijetilo odvajanje i ispadanje, kamen je usidren sidrima od nehrđajućeg metala i zaljepljen epoksidnom smolom. Pukotine su opšivene epoksidnom smolom. Retuš spojeva i sljubnica izveden je umjetnim kamenom. Rekonstrukcije oštećenja također su izvedene u umjetnom kamenu. Kod rekonstrukcije većih formi izrađena je armatura od prokronskih sidara, mjestimice i s pocinčanom žicom. Rekonstruirani su dijelovi obrađeni tako da se  teksturom uklope u izgled okolnih površina.

Zamjena metalnih spojnica između blokova, zaštita kamena i izrada završnog pokrova
Stare korodirane spojnice su izvađene i zamijenjene novima od nehrđajućeg metala (prokron). Slijedeći izvornu, antičku tehnologiju i tradiciju, kopče su nakon postavljanja zalivene olovom. Mjesta na kojima se kamen listao, ljuskao i/ili osipao zbog prisutnih štetnih topljivih soli tretirana su celuloznim oblozima s amonijevim karbonatom. Radi učvršćivanja razlistanog kamena, na problematične je zone nakon desalinizacije prskalicom nanesena otopina barijevog hidroksida. Više od 70% kamenih površina premazano je smjesom etilnog silikata i akrilatno-metakrilatnog kopolimera radi konsolidacije. Završna zaštita kamena izvedena je s amonijevim oksalatom. Kako bi se osigurao primjeren pad za otjecanje oborinskih voda, bilo je nužno na gornjoj plohi vijenca izraditi hidroizolacijski pokrov. Iako je njegova izrada projekt čije je izvođenje planirano integralno za cijeli Peristil, na dijelu obuhvaćenom prvom fazom radova izvedena je samo privremena dvostrešna "kapa“ od vapnenog morta s dva namjenska morta kao zaštitom.

Zaključak
U sklopu do sada izvedenih radova usvojene su metode i postupci koji će se primjenjivati na ostatku građevine.
Zbog složenosti i opsega zahvata konzervatorsko-restauratorski radovi na  Peristilu podijeljeni su u nekoliko faza. Sljedećom fazom radova bit će obuhvaćen južni dio zapadne kolonade s pročeljem palače Skočibučić, u koju se planira smjestiti Muzej sakralne umjetnosti.




Objavljeno: 31. siječnja 2006.

Lektorirano 24. listopada (M. Gojčeta Milić)

 

 

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Pretpostavljeni izgled Peristila - idelana rekonstrukcija G. Niemanna (1910.)
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Zona obuhvata prve faze radova - pogled s istoka

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Zona obuhvata prve faze radova - pogled sa zapada

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Crne kore na kapitelima stupova

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Tamne presvlake i osoljavanje kamena na vijencu kolonade

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Biološka onečišćenja na površini kamena

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Strukturna oštećenja kamena na jugoistočnoj strani pilona i pilastra

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Detalj spone dvaju lukova prije uklanjanja bioloških onečišćenja

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Ista površina nakon čišćenja

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Cementni pokrov na gornjoj plohi vijenca kolonade

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Gornja ploha vijenca nakon uklanjanja cementnog pokrova

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Uklanjanje anorganskih onečišćenja laserom

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Detalj kapitela tijekom čišćenja

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Nove sljubnice izrađene su u akrilno-vapnenom mortu

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Stare cementne zakrpe djelomično su uklonjene

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Rekonstruktivni zahvati izvedeni su umjetnim kamenom

 

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Željezne spojnice između kamenih blokova zamijenjene su spojnicama od nehrđajućeg čelika
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Radi osiguravanja primjerenog pada za otjecanje oborinskih voda izrađen je dvostrešni hidroizolacijski pokrov na vrhu kolonade
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Završna zaštita kamena
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Sjeverni dio istočne kolonade nakon konzervatorsko-restauratorskog zahvata
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Faze projekta obnove i zaštite Peristila.






 
Discuss (5 posts)
Četvrta faza projekta
Jul 08 2009 19:56:14
Četvrta faza projekta obnove i sanacije Peristila završena je krajem prošlog mjeseca. Novi voditelj konzervatorsko-restauratorskih radova bivši je student Odsjeka za konzervaciju-restauraciju Ivan Sikavica. On je predvodio stručni tim sastavljen uglavnom od diplomiranih studenata restauracije splitske Akademije. Detalje o izvedenim radovima, uz pregršt zanimljivih fotografija, ubrzo donosimo na stranicama našeg časopisa.


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#13
Komentar
Jul 26 2009 17:18:41
Po ovom navodu čitatelj pretpostavlja da su svi ti studenti UMAS-a (a nema ih baš puno) obavljali radove pro bono isključivo u svrhu prakse. Bilo bi fer navesti da su bili angažirani putem autorskog ugovora što rijetko koji student dobiva priliku.
Meni nije jedino jasno kako se spomenik "takvog kalibra" daje u rukama zaposlenika sa srednjom stručnom spremom iz klesarske škole u Pučišćima i sl., dok imamo restauratora na burzi koliko hoćeš. Toliko o stručnom timu koji spominjete...
Nadam se da bar voditelj, koji je očigledno jedini školovan restaurator, piše dokumentaciju...
#22
Neutemeljena kritika
Jul 26 2009 17:53:33
Ugovor po kojem su izvođači angažirani na projektu nije bio tema prvog posta. Primjedbu da se spomenik daje u ruke zaposlenika sa srednjom stručnom spremom držim potpuno neutemeljenom. Na ovom je projektu angažirano devet diplomiranih konzervatora-restauratora. To su: Ivana Hodak, Ivka Lipanović, Vinka Marinković, Mladen Matijaca, Iva Paduan, Ivana Petković, Željka Radić, Ivan Sikavica (voditelj radova) i Sagita Mirjam Sunara (voditeljica dokumentacije). Angažiran je i jedan student završne godine studija konzervacije-restauracije, Malik Palčok. Studenti nižih godina specijalističkog usmjerenja konzervacija-restauracija kamena UMAS-a doista su proteklih godina dio praktične nastave obavljali na Peristilu, pod nadzorom voditelja i nastavnika.
Kako projekt sanacije i obnove Peristila uključuje klesarske radove, na projektu su angažirana trojica klesara: Frane Oreb, Frane Prižmić i Toni Paladin. Ne vidim što je tu sporno.

Molim da se ubuduće svi korisnici foruma potpisuju punim imenom i prezimenom; jedino tako on može postati mjesto otvorenog dijaloga.
#25
Peristil iz novina
Nov 29 2009 20:13:28
BABIĆ, F., "Zablista kamen na carskom trgu - završen dio radova na Peristilu", Slobodna Dalmacija, 4.7.2009., www.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Split/tabid/72/...d/60631/Default.aspx

BABIĆ, F., "Montiranje: skele za umivanje carskoga trga", Slobodna Dalmacija, 14.9.2009., www.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Split/tabid/72/...d/69982/Default.aspx


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#101
Pogled na peristilske kapitele
Nov 29 2009 20:29:57

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#102

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Improve PC Speed | Blog Focus on Improve PC Speed by dlaserv.com
Feb 22, 2017

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Smart Tips For Finding Tips

What the Expectations of SEO Services Should Be

SEO is the acronym for search engine optimization. Search engine optimization can be utilized by a service provider to increase the number of website visitors. High ranking placements in the search results page ensures that this number is increased. Accessibility of a site to a search engine is ensured by this service. Also improved is the probability of the page being ranked highly by the search engine.

One should look for a reputable company when choosing SEO agencies. The SEO Company that comes first by simply searching on the web is the best. For this reason, for it to be the first to appear on the result page it must have performed highly. The best need not to be ranked here it is important to note. A great retention of clients is an attribute of a good company. The clients are always satisfied with the services offered. These companies consistently do great work and are in high demand. Out of their great work they get referrals and this explains why they don’t have to appear on search engines. These companies are usually overwhelmed with clients all the time because clients refer others to them. They make plenty of money and they are basically busy and thus they don’t spend time optimizing their own website.

SEO companies that cannot offer information should not be chosen. An agency cannot be trusted if they cannot tell you how they plan on doing the specific job you give them. SEO is a very open field. Therefore to choose a SEO, one should set goals that are needed to be achieved by the services. There are good and bad goals. One should list at least three to five agencies to choose from after setting goals. Creating a list requires a source of the information. Being the source are; friends, personal and professional networks. Industry insiders and similar non-competitive companies should offer the required information.

One should choose SEO companies based on the trust that one has established with a company. One should choose that company if they hear a great referral and they trust the referral source. That it takes time is what one should keep in mind when going through the list of SEO agencies. Always the best is a monthly retainer. SEO changes because the field is full of competition and one rankings too change. Not all SEO services are created equal. One that clearly defines its scope and educates you is what should be found. A SEO is important and should be done because the point of the website is to improve business. In comparison a SEO service provider is better than doing the thing personally. One will rarely emerge as the top if they decide to do it on their own.

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Feb 22, 2017

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Study: My Understanding of Sites

Reasons for Using WordPress. Perhaps you have always wanted to design a website but then you do not have the skills.Do not worry as WordPress has got your back.As a business owner, you always need to consult with your web developer whenever you need to change or add details on your website. WordPress is easy to use and access. With its various themes, you will be guided on how to go about it. Before WordPress came, everyone had to deal with the developer even long after they are done with the web design, even to change the smallest details, one couldn’t do it on their own, so every time your called developer you had to pay them. With WordPress created websites, they are accessible from any kind of screen or browser as long as you have proper internet connection. WordPress, enables you to easily add so many plug-ins on your website as long as they don’t conflict.These days most websites have a video or audio icon on them. This means that there is improved time management since you can have an entire weeks schedule and it will be updated to your website the date and time that you have indicated. The link adding happens on your control panel. Most people look for websites that once they are done reading through your website or watching videos, they can then say something about it, you also feel nice getting feedback from your viewers.
Study: My Understanding of Sites
This means that website created using WordPress are more secure than any other website, always inquire from your developer whether they have WordPress software, and if they don’t recommend it to them. With WordPress however, the software creates websites that are already optimized, either to Bing or Microsoft Network (MSN), so you do not have to worry that your website will not be seen by search engines.
The Essentials of Sites – Breaking Down the Basics
People create websites so that they can be able to market their products, services or even themselves.Allowing you to have eye catching headlines on your website or blog, WordPress has made it easy for people to become more curious with the headlines they get on your website. Unlike other website software where you have to pay a developer to help you crack it, WordPress is absolutely free and comes with unlimited validity.If you have any troubleshooting problems, there are a large number of people using WordPress who are ready to help. Better still, more people are embracing this technology with open arms.

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Feb 21, 2017

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6 Facts About Activities Everyone Thinks Are True

On the Sudden Growth in the Popularity of eSports When you see a stadium full of enthusiastic fans, you can no longer assume that they are there to watch professional sports stars. You may also find professional gamers, donning their headsets and taking part in video game competitions known as eSports. In little more than two decades, eSports has grown from its roots in local arcade game competitions into a competitive event that is the equal of many types of organized sporting events in terms of interest and attendance. Just like traditional sports, this level of audience interest has brought in major sponsors and even network television coverage. There has been some amount debate as to whether or not eSports actually qualifies as a sporting event. Traditionalists claim that the virtual aspect of the competition makes it impossible to call eSports a real sport. Others would claim that eSports is actually just as skill-based as any other sport. Those who participate in eSports competition must have extremely fast reflexes and be able to command amazing hand-eye coordination. Gamers must also be extremely knowledgeable about the games they are playing. Does it really matter whether or not eSports actually qualifies as a real sport? Major league eSports competitions actually draw a number of online viewers that exceeds the viewership of many other major professional sports. Gaming channels on Youtube actually have more followers than any other type with the exception of music channels. When you have viewing audiences rivaling the most popular professional sports, you can bet that eSports will continue to grow in popularity in the future.
Getting Creative With Sports Advice
Many people who are unfamiliar with eSports may be wondering what an eSports competition looks like. In an eSports competition the gaming is facilitated by video gaming systems. The game itself is broadcast throughout the facility on large screen monitors that can be viewed by the entire audience. Generally, on the monitors, eSports is broadcast in split screen fashion, with the gaming field that the participant sees taking up the larger portion of the screen, with the participants inset at the bottom or top of the screen.
Practical and Helpful Tips: Sports
Many people have pretty stereotyped views of what gaming competitions may look like. Instead of propagating stereotypes of gamers wearing headsets, chugging energy drinks, it is better to tune in and watch some eSports competition to see why so many people are interested in this growing phenomenon. Already eSports competitions are extremely popular, and they are still growing in popularity. Those who are interested in learning more about eSports competition should start out by watching eSports events online. Online eSports TV channels, like DingIt TV, offer people a detailed view of this eSports competitions. To get started, all you have to do is search the Internet for more information about eSports.

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Feb 21, 2017

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Finding Ways To Keep Up With Entertainment

How to Find Great eSports Streaming eSports are among the most exciting and popular spectator events around. In a world dominated by spectator sports, eSports gaming competitions are quickly drawing crowds that rival even the most popular sports. Matches among the leading eSports competitors are broadcast on TV and streamed live online all around the world. If you are interested in gaming and love to watch people play who are especially skilled, you have to check eSports broadcasts. eSports first rose in prominence in Korea and other Asian countries where it is considered to be one the most important spectator events. The largest fan bases in the sport can be found in Korea, as well as the largest audiences for major eSports events. While it is true that gaming competitions were popular during the 1990’s, technological constraints did not allow them to achieve the kind of popularity they have today. However, thanks to the sudden growth in global communications technologies beginning around the year 2000, gaming competitions became less local and more of a world wide phenomenon. Today you can view online gaming content in a wide variety of venues. In fact, your will find that gaming channels are among the most popular subscription channels on Youtube, number two behind music channels. However, the gaming content that you view on a gaming channel is a lot less competitive than the eSports content you will find on an eSports streaming service. The gaming channels you find on video services like Youtube are primarily for humor and entertainment as opposed to eSports streaming platforms that stream the most competitive eSports available on a daily basis.
The Essentials of Activities – The Basics
Because of the popularity of online eSports streaming platforms, like DingIt TV, audiences for eSports in North America and Asia are now beginning to rival those in Asia. Even in the United States and Europe, you will find audience attendance at eSports events that actually rivals the crowds attending professional sports events. Recently, a leading sports website reported that eSports actually attracted more viewers than any other sporting event but professional football.
Lessons Learned from Years with Sports
Recently, there has been some debate to whether or not eSports are actually real sports. Those who believe it is not actually a sport say that it depends too much on the video game to facilitate game play. However, those who support the idea of video game competitions as sports competitions recognize the great amount of skill and incredible hand-eye coordination gaming takes. The easiest way to find the best in eSports action is to search the Internet for gaming competitions being streamed online. Those who would like to learn more about eSports competitions should begin by searching the Internet for an online eSports streaming platform, like DingIt TV. To begin, the best thing you can do is search the Internet for eSports online streaming platforms.

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Feb 20, 2017

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Why not learn more about Money?

Ways of Experiencing a Fruitful Crowdfunding Event

Crowd funding has been in existence for some time now. But, it has become popular recently. You can access crowd funding from different websites and platforms. Entrepreneurs who are starting up business should take advantage of crowd funding to raise cash. The traditional methods of acquiring finances are very different from this option. On this note, you have to impress the audience in order to get funding. You are to make an appeal to the audience so as to get funds and support.

You need to come up with a strategic plan before kick starting the fundraising project. Once you get the required funding, make sure that your project kicks off. This means bringing together your designs, team and strategy.
There is a need of building up on an audience and fan base as you proceed with planning and creating strategies. You are after numbers and hence using social media would be the most convenient means of reaching your goal. You are also at the advantage of reaching out to people from all over the world.

You require to prepare people psychologically on when the project will be taking place. Come up with an exciting tactic that will leave the audience wanting to witness the crowd funding project.
What Has Changed Recently With Money?

You should always recall that the audience will be you crowd funding. Once they get on board and support your idea, they will be the first consumers too. While using this strategy, note that the products are created once the funding issue is done. It would therefore be wise to keep on communicating with your fans even after the fundraising. Most importantly, let the audience know when they will finally have access to the product.
Money – Getting Started & Next Steps

Begin by listing down the foundation of your speech. Creativity is of the essence on this matter. The main aspect you want to gain from the speech are being able to engage the audience and appeal to them as well. Once you manage to capture their attention through the header and the introduction sentences, you are good to go.

You are advised to stick to your story. Give a brief history what of what motivated you to build up on your idea. Let the audience b aware of the challenges you have been facing. You can opt to use humor though you have to be tactful about it.

You should think of a video once you have finished the written piece. There are those who prefer to watch as opposed to reading and hence a video would create a good impact. Note that the optimal length of the video should be around three minutes.

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Feb 20, 2017

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How I Achieved Maximum Success with Diving

Tips On How To Buy The Ideal Scuba Mask.

It will be important to consider several decisions when it comes to buying a scuba mask. Ensure that you will be able to familiarize yourself with the mask first before you get to buy it. In that case you will be able to know which one suits you best. With that here are some of the given factors which will need to be considered in the given case.

Either buying or renting the masks is one of the problems that the divers have to deal with in this case. In diving you will find that owning your equipment will be the ideal way to do it that will be as well as the mask. That way you will be able to get the one that fits you well and suits your style and preferences. In many cases you will find that when dealing with the rentals, they will not always come in the way you would want to have you like. The only time the rentals would come in handy is when you find that a person has forgotten to carry theirs and they need to go for diving.

The market will give you a variety of scuba masks as well as the swim masks. You will find that they are made differently and the two cannot be confused with each other. You will find that the scuba masks are made in such a way that they are able to sustain the pressure that comes with diving unlike the swim masks.

You will find that they will tend to have a very strong tempered glass for that purpose which is not the case with the swim mask. It will be important to consider a case where the air mask will be meant for the balancing of the pressure under the water. This are very important features that any diver should look for in a scuba mask which will not be the case found in a swim mask.

Consider how well the mask will be able to fit in this case. When you get the skirt wrapped around you then you will find that there are no gaps available in such a case. When you get an ill fitting mask you will find that the water will be able to flow inside very easily which can lead to choking and drowning in other cases. That is why you have to look for a store that they give the fitting measurements for their customers before the buy. When you look at the mask in this case you will find that the pool is a good start to ensure that it will be right to use in large water bodies.

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Feb 20, 2017

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Interesting Research on Resources – What No One Ever Told You

The Advantages Of A Hoseless Dive Computer

A hoseless dive PC is a remote and air facilitated compass which is planned for bouncing while considering an extension or lessening in pneumatic drive as an individual is diving. There are a few focal points that are joined by the utilization of a hoseless plunge PC, for example, the PC permits following of the decompression status as it anticipates decompression infection in jumpers this is on account of it tracks the nitrogen levels in the body of a jumper by controlling the measure of nitrogen admission and out take in the jumper as it is critical to likewise guarantee that the jumper gets great quality air as they are making a plunge the ocean.

It also allows an individual to spend more time under water this is because it has a maximum number of feet that the diver can be able to dive deep and it also limits the period of time the individual will be in the water as this often helps prevent decompression sickness in an individual.

Bounce PCs also help in giving accurate time and significance recordings when appeared differently in relation to the conventional strategy for figuring the significance and time that the jumper spends in water as it was much of the time off course, yet the usage of the dive PC progresses exact estimations and meanwhile it in like manner ensures that there are no more dive table bumbles this is in light of the fact that hop PCs actually plays out each one of the considers for the decompression status of the jumper and besides register the decompression time and the rooftop significance this is just in case an individual encounters a decompression.

The dive computer also has accent rate indicators which often indicate to the diver the rate at which they are supposed to ascend this is because divers are taught on how to ascend slowly so that they do not exceed their set maximum ascend rate this is because if they do so they may suffer from decompression sickness and it also gives the diver a warning in the event where they are ascending at a fast rate than they are supposed to.

Hoseless bounce PCs are in like manner known to consider a decrease in weight when an individual ascensions to shallow profundities and thusly an individual can have the ability to know the rate at which they ought to ascend on to the surface of the water and this is frequently seen as more exact when stood out from standard tables which are thought to be less correct.

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